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Full text of "The Improvement Era"



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Chinese 



Danish 



Dutch 



American Indian (English) 



Finnish 




French 



German 



Italian 



Japanese 



Korean 





, L Unified Magazine 

SsJ Now in 17 Languages 



See Page 4 



Norwegian 



Portuguese 





Samoan 



Spanish 



Swedish 



Tahitian 



Tongan 




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Under the direction 

the Prophet, a divinely 

inspired program has been 

established to meet your social 

and spiritual needs — 

The Institute of Religion. 



Prepare 
\burself for 
Meaningful 
Living ! 



INVOLVE YOURSELF IN THE INSTITUTE PROGRAM NOW! 



On the Cover: 

Our cover features a recent issue of the 
so-called Unified Magazine, a somewhat ap- 
propriate term used to describe a 36-page 
monthly magazine available to members of 
the Church in 17 language areas. The March 
Era cover was used on this issue. 

Since the editorial selection, layout and 
design, illustrations and photographs, and 
covers for the magazines are determined at 
Church headquarters, the term unified maga- 
zine has come to reflect the process of pro- 
duction. Interestingly, from selection of the 
editorial material until completion of printing 
in 17 languages takes about four months and 
involves many steps, some of which present 
intriguing difficulties: For example, for some 
languages it takes up to 20 percent more 
space to say the same thing than in English. 
Hence, an article design and layout for each 
magazine must take this into consideration. 
Even the editorial selection presents chal- 
lenges: While not all areas of the Church 
have temples, seminary programs, or the 
same attitudes about all subjects, editorial 
selection must attempt to meet the general 
needs of all Latter-day Saints and the specific 
needs of each lingual group-culture. 

For more information about this important 
development in Church correlation and ad- 
ministration, see page 4 for "The Unified 
Magazine" by Doyle L. Green, Improvement 
Era managing editor and managing editor of 
the Editorial Department. This new Church 
department is responsible, among other 
things, for the editing of all Church manuals 
and instructional materials and the produc- 
tion of the Unified Magazine. 




The "Editor's Page" in 17 languages 




The Voice of the Church • August 1969 • Volume 72, Number 8 

Special Features 

2 The Editors Page: Our Worldwide Church, President David 0. McKay 

4 The Unified Magazine, Doyle L. Green 

8 The Open House Program, Dr. Edwin O. Haroldsen 

20 Keep Cool: An Open Letter to Anguished Parents 

28 The Smiths Who Handled the Plates (Part 10), Dr. Richard Lloyd 
Anderson 

50 On Reaching for the Moon, William T. Sykes 

60 An 1833 Guide for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Dr. Ray G. Cowley 

75 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 8, Facsimile No. 1, by 
the Figures, Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Regular Features 

16 Melchizedek Priesthood Page: How to Use Records and Reports, Elder 
Delbert L. Stapley 

24 Teaching: The Pay That Doesn't Come in an Envelope, Wayne B. Lynn 

53 Today's Family: When Family Means Roommates, Eleanor Knowles 

58 The Church Moves On 

64 Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About 
the Word of Wisdom, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

66 The LDS Scene 

69 Buffs and Rebuffs 

70 Lest We Forget: Evening Time With the Joseph Smith Family, Albert L. 
Zobell, Jr. 

72 These Times: The New Commandment, Dr. G. Homer Durham 

88 End of an Era 

61, 67, 69, 71 The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 



Era of Youth 

35-49 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 

Fiction, Poetry 

12 Put a Star on Shadow Mountain, Caroi Clark Ottesen 
26, 32, 34, 56 Poetry 

David 0. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L Green, Managing Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Janes Gabbott, Jay M, Todd, 
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes, Editorial Associates; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon. Era of Youth Associate Editor; 
Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L. Payne, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representatives. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1969, and published by the 
Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance; 
multiple subscriptions, 2 years. $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year, $2.50 a year added to the three-year price; 350 single copy, except for 
special issues. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City) Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 
act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for on acceptance and must be 
accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice is required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. Address 
changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, 
Music Committee, Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 




The Editor's Page 



Our Worldwide Church 

A Message in 17 Tongues 



Norwegian 
Var Verdensomspennende Kirke 
Av president David O. McKay 

Gud velsigne Kirken. Den er verden- 
somspennende og dens innflydelse skulle 
bli f0lt av alle nasjoner. Ma hans 
and influere menneskene overalt og 
vende deres hjerter mot forstaelse og 
fred. 

Swedish 
Var Varldsomfattande Kyrka 

Av president David O. McKay 

Ma Gud valsigna kyrkan. Den stracker 
sig over hela jorden och dess inflytande 
borde kannas av alia lander. Ma hans 
ande utgjutas over manskor overallt och 
vanda deras hjartan mot fred och god 
vilja. 

Portuguese 
Nossa Igreja Mundial 

Pelo Presidente David O. McKay 

Que Deus aben^oe a Igreja. E mundial, 
e sua influencia deve tocar todas as 
nacoes. Que Seu espirito possa influ- 
enciar a humanidade e inclinar seus 
coracoes a paz e boa vontade. 



Dutch 
Onze Wereldomvattende Kerk 

Door president David 0. McKay 

God zegene de Kerk. Zij is werel- 
domspannend en haar invloed moet wel 
door alle naties gevoeld worden. Moge 
Gods Geest het ganse mensdom bein- 
vloeden en hun hart richten tot vrede 
en in de mensen een welbehagen, 



Chinese 

ft ti t tMk, 



Italian 
La Nostra Chiesa Mondiale 

di Presidente David O. McKay 

Dio benedica la Chiesa. E'una Chiesa 
conosciuta in tutto il mondo e la sua in- 
fluenza dovra essere sentita in tutte le 
nazioni. Che il suo spirito abbia influ- 
enza negli uomini ovunque e incline i 
loro cuori verso la buona volonta e la 
pace. 

English 

Our Worldwide Church 

By President David 0. McKay 

God bless the Church. It is worldwide, 
and its influence should be felt by all 
nations. May his spirit influence men 
everywhere and incline their hearts to- 
ward goodwill and peace. 



German 
Unsere Weltumspannende Kirche 

von President David O. McKay 

Gott segne die Kirche. Sie umspannt 
die ganze Welt und alle Lander sollen 
ihren Einflufi spiiren. Moge Sein Geist 
alle Menschen beeinflussen, damit sie 
guten Willens und friedlich gesinnt sind. 



Improvement Era 



French 

Notre Eglise Universelle 

par le president David O. McKay 

Dieu benisse l'Eglise! Elle est uni- 
verselle et toutes les nations devraient 
subir son influence. Puisse Son esprit 
influer sur tous les hommes et incliner 
leur coeur vers la bonne volonte et la 
paix! 



Japanese 



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Finnish 

Maailmanlaajuinen kirkkomme 
Presidentti David 0. McKay 

Jumala siunatkoon kirkkoa. Se on 
maailmanlaajuinen ja kaikkien kansa- 
kuntien tulisi tuntea sen vaikutus. 
Koskettakoon Hanen Henkensa ihmisia 
kaikkialla ja vaikuttakoon heidan syda- 
miinsa niin, etta vallitsisi rauha ja hyva 
tahto. 



American Indian (English) 

Our Worldwide Church 
By President David 0. McKay 

God bless the Church. It is worldwide, 
and its influence should be felt by all 
nations. May his spirit influence men 
everywhere and incline their hearts to- 
ward goodwill and peace. 



Samoan 
La Tatou Ekalesia I Le Lalolagi Atoa 

Tautalagia e Peresitcne David O. McKay 

la fa'amanuia e le Atua le Ekalesia. 
Ua i ai nei i le lalolagi atoa ma e tatau 
ai ona lagonaina e atunu'u uma lona 
aoga. la musuia e Lona Agaga tagata 
uma i so'o se atunu'u ma fa'aua'i atu 6 
latou loto i le alofa ma le filemu. 



Tongan 
Hotau Siasi Faka'Univeesi 

Fai 'e Palcsiteni David O. McKay 

'Ofa ke tapuekina 'e he 'Otua 'a e 
Siasi. Kuo hoko ia ko ha siasi faka'uni- 
veesi, pea 'e ongona 'a hono ongo 'e he 
ngaahi pule'anga kotoa pe. 'Ofa ke 
fakaue'i 'e Hono laumalie 'a e kakai 'i 
he potu kotoa pe, pea ke takiekina honau 
loto ki he loto 'ofa mo e melino. 



Tahitian 

Ta Tatou Ekalesia i Te Ao Taatoa Nei 

Na te Peresideni David O. McKay 

la haamaitaihia te Ekalesia e te Atua. 
Tei roto te Ekalesia i te ao taatoa nei e 
to'na mana e mea tia ja i te faariihia e 
te mau nunaa atoa. Na te varua o te 
Atua e faauru i te mau taata i te mau 
vahi atoa e, e faafariu i to ratou mau 
aau i roto i te hinaaro maitai e te hau. 



Korean 



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Danish 
Vor Verdensomspsendende Kirke 

Af President David 0. McKay 

Gud velsigne Kirken. Den er verden- 
somspsendende, og dens indflydelse 
burde f0les af alle nationer. Ma Hans 
and 0ve indflydelse pa mennesker over- 
alt i verden og forlene deres hjerter med 
trangen til at vise god vilje og skabe 
fred. 



Spanish 
Nuestra Iglesia Es Mundial 

Por el Prcsidente David O. McKay 

Dios bendiga la Iglesia. Esta en todo 
el mundo y su influencia se debe sentir 
en todas las naciones. Que su Espiritu 
ilumine a los hombres en todas partes 
y conduzca sus corazones hacia la paz y 
buena voluntad. 



August 1969 



The Church sends its messages 
to the worl d throu gh the 

UNIFIED 

MAGAZINE 



By Doyle L. Green 

Managing Editor 




farly in August Chinese 
members of the Church 
in the Southern Far East 
Mission will receive in 
the mail copies of a monthly magazine, 8% x 11 inches 
in size. On the cover will be a beautiful full-color 
reprocluction of a painting of Noah warning the people 
of the impending flood. The name of the magazine in 
Chinese is ^£ j £ 2LJk ^t, which interpreted 
means The Voice of the Saints. 

When the magazine arrives, many fathers in those 
far-off lands will gather their families around them, 
talk about the cover, then open the magazine to the 
lead article on the first page, and read a message from 
the Prophet of the Lord, President David O. McKay. 
There is such a message in each issue. The August 
article is entitled "The Gate of Baptism." 
From the native Chinese characters he would read: 
'Baptism,' said the Prophet Joseph Smith, 'is a sign 
from God, . . . and there is no other way beneath the 
heavens wherebv God hath ordained for man to come 



to Him to be saved, and enter into the Kingdom of 
God, except faith in Jesus Christ, repentance, and 
baptism for the remission of sins, and any other course 
is in vain: then you have the promise of the gift of 
the Holy Ghost.' 

"Baptism is one of the first principles and ordinances 
of the gospel. . . ." (See Era, April 1969, p. 2.) 

Finishing the article by President McKay, which fills 
two pages, the family may discuss the meaning of this 
important message to them. Then turning through 
the magazine, they will find articles and features of 
value and interest to every family member. For exam- 
ple, there are three other messages from General 
Authorities: "Perhaps the Hardest Lesson to Learn," 
by Elder Richard L. Evans of the Council of the 
Twelve; "A Message of Inspiration," by Elder Theo- 
dore M. Burton, Assistant to the Council of the Twelve; 
and "The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About 
Tithing," by Bishop John H. Vandenberg. 

The children will find four pages of material that 
includes pictures of and quotations from each member 
of the Council of the Twelve. In addition, there will 
be the following features: a story, "Personal Appraisal," 
an account of two men who placed personal integrity 




above personal gain; an article called "Adults— and 
This Business of Learning"; and the following addi- 
tional features: "Mother Habits," "Planning Your Les- 
son Presentation," "A Rewarding Rule of Health," 
"Friends Are Made at MIA," "Power? To Do What?" 
and "The Evil Designs of Men." In the back of the 
magazine they will find interesting and vital items 
concerning the Church and Church members in the 
Southern Far East Mission. Some 1,000 copies of the 
Chinese The Voice of the Saints are distributed each 
month. 

On approximately the same day members of the 
Church in 16 other language areas throughout the 
world will receive the same basic magazine with the 
same cover, same layouts, same photographs, same 
articles and features, but translated into and printed 
in their own languages. The primary difference be- 
tween the magazines will be the five pages of items 
of local interest. 

The idea for a unified magazine for the non-English- 
speaking peoples of the Church was developed by 
Elder Howard W. Hunter of the Council of the Twelve 
in 1966 when he was supervising the European 
Mission. 

As he traveled from one mission to another and 
observed the workings of the mission staffs, Elder 
Hunter noted the great amount of time that was being 
spent by mission presidents and missionaries in produc- 
ing mission magazines. Also, he was concerned because 
the magazines varied so much in quality and in content. 
He then set about to unify and correlate the efforts 
going into the publications with the goal in mind of: 



saving precious missionary hours, cutting expenses, 
and at the same time upgrading the quality of the 
publications. 

In working out the problems, Elder Hunter sought 
the assistance of Bishop John H. Vandenberg and 
Bishop Victor L. Brown of the Presiding Bishopric, 
who supervise translation and distribution services 
for the Church. Much credit for helping develop the 
idea goes to the staff of the Distribution and Transla- 
tion Division, which at the time was managed by 
J. Thomas Fyans and which is now supervised by 
John E. Carr. 

After a good deal of study it was concluded that 
the best way to proceed would be to select the most 
vital and appropriate articles prepared for use in 
The Improvement Era, The Instructor, The Children's 
Friend, and The Relief Society Magazine, combine 
these with articles prepared by various Church orga- 
nizations, and add some local material prepared under 
the direction of the mission presidents. These articles 
and features would then be translated into the various 
languages. This would make it possible for one 
central staff to perform work that had formerly been 
done in almost every mission area in the Church. 

The first edition of the new unified magazine ap- 
peared in March 1967 in nine European languages. As 
leaders in other mission areas saw the value and poten- 
tial of the publication, other languages were added, 
and soon the service was extended to other areas, 
including the Far East and Polynesia. Today the 
magazine is being printed in 17 languages, including 
the English edition for the American Indians. The 
languages in which the magazine is now being printed 
and the name of the publication in each follow: 




■ 




If ;t!Si 


KTJ * H \fr: 




These eight different language maga- 
zines are printed in Frankfurt, Germany. 



Chi 



nese 



Danish 

Dutch 

English 

(for American Indiav 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Italian 

Japanese 

Korean 



Norwegian 

Portuguese 

Samoan 
Spanish 
Swedish 

Tahitian 
Tongan 



Den danske 
Stjerne 

De Ster 

The Liahona 

Valkeus 
L'fitoile 
Der Stem 
La Stella 

WW 



Lys over 

Norge 

A Liahona 
O Le Liahona 
Liahona 
Nordstjarnan 

Te Tiarama 
Ko E Tuhulu 



The Voice 
of the Saints 

The Danish 

Star 

The Star 



The Light 
The Star 

The Star 

The Star 

The Way 
of the Saints 

The Friend 
of the Saints 



Light over 

Norway 



The North 
Star 

The Light 

The Torch 



SaoPmb 



/ 



It is interesting to note that four of the publications 
are called Liahona, after the compass that the Lord 
provided for the prophet Lehi to guide his family 
through the wilderness. 

A number of these publications will be familiar to 
returned missionaries and others, as some of these 
magazines have been published for many years, The 
German Der Stern, for example, this year printed a 
special issue in observance of its one-hundredth anni- 
versary. It was begun in 1869 and has a long and 
honored history of useful service to the German-speak- 
ing peoples. Today it has a circulation of about 6,000. 

The Spanish Lialwna, which has a current circulation 
of 7,700, has been published since 1945. 

The next largest magazine in point of circulation 
(3,750) is the French L'Etoile. It has been printed 
since 1928. 

On the other hand, some of the magazines are very 
new and have small circulations. The Italian La Stella, 
for example, has a circulation of 500. The newest 
magazine of the group is the Tahitian Te Tiarama, 
which serves the Saints in the French Polynesian 
Mission. It was first issued in August 1968. The 
French L'Etoile is also circulated among the Saints 
in that mission. 

In August 1968 the editorial responsibility for the 
Unified Magazine was transferred to the newly formed 
Church Editorial Department, which functions under 
the supervision of the chairman of the Correlation 
Executive Committee, Elder Harold B. Lee. Each 
month materials from our current English language 
magazines are carefully selected and screened by the 
editorial staff, and the proposed articles and features 
for the unified magazines are selected. These are 
reviewed by a committee from the Church's Transla- 
tion Department, made up of representatives of the 
various language areas. They are then read by repre- 



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sentatives of the Church's Correlation Committee. 
Layouts are made, photographs and art work are 
selected or produced, and duplicate sets of the trans- 
lator's copy are then forwarded by the Translation 
Department to its representatives in the language 
areas, where the material is translated into 16 lan- 
guages. The translations are then forwarded, along 
with five pages of materials provided by the missions, 
to one of seven printing centers, where they are set into 
type. 

In the meantime, the editorial staff in Salt Lake City 
has had produced duplicate sets of color separations 
to be used for the cover. These are generally taken 
from The Improvement Era. Duplicate sets of positive 
or negative films of all the photographs and other 
art work to be used on the inside pages are also made. 
These, along with complete layouts and printing in- 
structions, are sent directly to the printing centers, 
where the material is then all assembled and the 
magazines are printed. 

Printing centers for the magazines are: English 
(American Indian) and Spanish, Salt Lake City; 
Portuguese, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Samoan, Tongan, and 
Tahitian, Auckland, New Zealand; German, Italian, 
Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, French, Danish, and 
Dutch, Frankfurt, Germany; Chinese, Hong Kong; 
Japanese, Tokyo; Korean, Seoul. 

The unified magazine program is in keeping with 
the desires of the General Authorities to give our 
brothers and sisters, wherever they may live, the ad- 
vantage of as much of the Church program as possible. 
Through the magazine important messages from the 
General Authorities and vital items concerning the 
Church, its doctrine, policies, and developments are 
now being sent monthly in essentially the same form 
into homes of Church members and friends through- 
out the world. 



0*$ igiijlii^ ik 

mi 




TE TIARAMA 




LE L1AH0NA 




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HongHong 




Portuguese version is printed in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The Chinese 
version is printed in Hong Kong, Korean in Seoul, and Japanese 
in Tokyo. Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan magazines are printed 
in Auckland, New Zealand. 




Bishop A. Barrie Best of the Racine (Wisconsin) Ward 
discusses meaning of the temple at Kenosha open house. 



Elder Daniel B. Baxter, Northern States mission- 
ary, explains Church organization to young boys. 




Visitors at the open house engage in informal, easy-going, pleasant discussion. 



The Open House Program 

By Dr. Edwin 0. Haroldsen 

Edwin 0. Haroldsen, Chicago regional editor of a weekly national news 
magazine, is a member of the Chicago South Stake high council. 



A popular and effective method to introduce the Church to non- 
member friends and neighbors is to hold an open house. Simply 
stated, an open house is an opportunity for members and mission- 
aries to bring visitors and guests by personal invitation to a house 
of the Lord. The main plan of the social-spiritual evening includes 
a tour of the building, an explanation of specially prepared exhibits 
on gospel principles , perhaps a movie, and light refreshments. The 
story of this activity in one mission is detailed in the following 
article. Hopefully you and your branch or ivard members will be 
encouraged to help your mission president, stake or fulltime mission- 
aries, seventies, ayid home teachers to hold your oivn open houses. 



Missionary open houses in the 
Northern States Mission the past 
year stirred many to action — and 
a significant number of investiga- 
tors were baptized. 

A meter maid in uniform and on 
duty stopped in at a downtown 
open house in Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
intending to stay but a few min- 
utes. She remained an hour, took 
the tour, and saw the Church's 



Improvement Era 




Bishop Barrie encourages a couple attend- 
ing the open house to register their visit. 




Ward member at the Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
open house answers gospe/ queries of visi- 
tors. 



movie Man's Search for Happi- 
ness. She is now studying the gos- 
pel. 

Approximately 1,500 nonmem- 
bers were given a glimpse of Mor- 
mon doctrine and family life at 75 
open houses in four states in the 
Northern States Mission in 1968. 
(In the first five months of 1969, 
1,951 attended.) Nearly 150 of 
these — or one in ten — were bap- 



tized into the Church, reports 
Warren W. Henderson, recently 
released mission president. They 
accounted for about 20 percent 
of the mission's 724 convert bap- 
tisms last year. 

Open house visitors came from 
varied backgrounds — mayors of 
Clinton, Iowa; DeKalb, Illinois; and 
Kenosha, Wisconsin; the president 
of Prairie State College near Chi- 
cago; 50 ministers of other faiths; 
people from many walks of life. 

A woman whose daughter was 
recently baptized came to an open 
house in West Frankfort, Illinois, 
"to see the church that has done 
so much for my daughter." 

At Kenosha, nonmembers bought 
50 copies of the Book of Mormon, 
and at the Logan Square Ward in 
Chicago, almost that many were 
sold. 

Visitors carried away 500 free 
copies of the Family Home Eve- 
ning Manual in open houses over 
the mission last year. 

A nonmember woman with a 
master's degree in history took 
one of the manuals at the Univer- 
sity Ward open house in Chicago 
and read 26 lessons in a short 
time. Depressed on one occasion, 
she picked up the manual and 
read about the virtue of work. 
Then she reported she went out 
and cleaned her car and "felt so 
happy." 

After an open house in Freeport, 
Illinois, a nonmember family be- 
gan holding regular family home 
evenings using the manual. A 50- 
year-old woman took three man- 
uals at the DeKalb, Illinois, open 
house to give to other people. 

The wife of a physician in Ke- 
nosha said the manual is just what 
she needs when her family is at 
their cabin or can't make it to 
their church on Sundays. She has 
also invited missionaries into her 
home. 

Some 25,000 personal invita- 
tions plus posters, newspaper 



stories, and hundreds of radio and 
TV announcements have helped 
bringfriends to open houses. A Mil- 
waukee station, WITI-TV, showed 
a 50-second color film of an open 
house on its 10 p.m. news broad- 
cast. WGN, one of Chicago's prin- 
cipal radio stations, announced 
the Logan Square Ward open house 
several times. 

The Madison, Wisconsin, CBS 
affiliate, WISC-TV, telecast a ses- 
sion of general conference. Dur- 
ing all of the breaks in this pro- 
gram the station mentioned an up- 
coming Madison open house and 
made up its own TV slides adver- 
tising the event. 

* A woman in Sauk City, Wiscon- 
sin, 40 miles away, after learning 
of the Madison open house from 
a TV announcement, telephoned 
long distance to find out about it 
and brought three nonmember 
friends. 

Two college graduates, one a 
bank teller and the other a teach- 
er, attended an open house in 
Oregon, Illinois, after seeing a 
poster in a store window. 

A young 19-year-old college 
student of suburban Chicago met 
"some wonderful Mormon girls" 
while vacationing in Wyoming. She 
wanted to join the Church then, 
but her parents asked her to wait. 
When she returned home from her 
vacation, she saw an advertise- 
ment of an open house to be held 
in Wilmette, Illinois. Her parents 
attended with her and were so im- 
pressed they consented to her 
baptism shortly after. 

A world traveler learned of an 
open house in Wilmette through 
reading a newspaper announce- 
ment. At the open house, he was 
told about Tuesday night geneal- 
ogy classes; he replied, "Well, 
this is where I belong." 

A Milwaukee family saw a news- 
paper announcement, attended an 
open house, and joined the 
Church. 



August 1969 



A 17-year-old Catholic high 
school girl attended an open house 
at Kenosha because she heard 
she could get information on ge- 
nealogy and family trees. She com- 
mented after seeing the film 
Man's Search for Happiness: "The 
fact that your members and repre- 
sentatives have such courage of 
their convictions really amazes 
me. 

When the elders later called on 
the family, they were welcomed 



warmly. They learned that the 
grandparents had attended the 
same open house, and that neither 
family had known in advance that 
the other would attend. They are 
now teaching the family the gospel. 
Many others have continued 
studying the gospel after attend- 
ing an open house the past year. 
When missionaries made a follow- 
up visit to a family in Chicago, the 
mother announced: "We're going 
to have the six lessons." 



"We're the ones who give them," 
replied Elder Michael D. Alvey of 
Salt Lake City. 

Connie Mowrey attended an 
open house in Davenport, Iowa, in 
September, and joined the Church 
in December. On a single Satur- 
day recently, five persons were 
baptized in Davenport and five in 
Champaign, Illinois, as a direct 
result of open houses. 

Beverly Bicker attended an open 
house in Freeport, Illinois, in June 




Two recent converts, Brother and Sister 
William Hermann, discuss Church teachings. 



Below, left: Visitors at open house step inside mock home for family evening. 
Below, right: Children of Bishop and Sister Best take part in presentation. 




1968. When the elders came by 
later, she let them in because 
"everyone was so friendly." She 
attended her next open house, in 
October, as a member. 

A stake missionary brought Mrs. 
Jayne M. Sears and her two sons 
to an open house in Elgin, Illinois, 
in October. She was baptized dur- 
ing the Christmas holidays. 

Friends attending open houses 
during the year were generally en- 




Elder Glen T. Martineau explains to police 
meter maid Christ's visitation to America. 




Kenosha open house also presented a typ- 
ical family enjoying family home evening. 




thusiastic. At Galesburg, Illinois, 
the city's fire chief commented: 
"Interesting and enlightening anal- 
ysis of the teachings and prac- 
tices of your church. Should be 
seen and heard by more people of 
other churches to relieve them of 
many of their prejudices toward 
your church. I have served in the 
armed forces and elsewhere with 
Mormons and can state I have 
never met a Mormon I did not like 
or respect." 

A pastor of the Reformed 
Church in America, Chicago, asked 
for a copy of the song "I Am a 
Child of God," sung during a dem- 
onstration of the family home eve- 
ning. 

A Catholic high school teacher 
commented after an open house 
at Galesburg, Illinois, "Truthfully 
that which interested me and im- 
pressed me most was the sincerity 
and enthusiasm of the young men 
who presented the various por- 
tions of the program. Thank you 
and God bless you all." 

A Peoria, Illinois, teenager, 
Shirley Kincade, commented, "I 
have asked God in my prayers to 
give me the wisdom I lacked. I 
know that from my discussions 
tonight God has answered my 
prayers." She was later baptized. 

A nonmember visitor comment- 
ed, after seeing the John Sonnen- 
berg family demonstrate the family 
home evening at an open house 
at Naperville, Illinois: "Oh, that 
Sonnenberg family — you won't see 
any of those kids growing up and 
being delinquents." 

A Catholic woman bought a 
Tabernacle Choir record at the 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, open house. 
She stated, "I am impressed with 
the kindness and true brotherly 
love of the Latter-day Saint mem- 
bers." 

In Kenosha, an open house held 
in a vacant store in a good down- 
town location attracted 100 non- 
members. 



Declared Bishop Joseph R. Lar- 
sen, Jr., of Champaign (Illinois) 
Ward: 

"We have been delighted to use 
the new open house program. At 
our first open house we had some 
200 or more people, about 80 per- 
cent of them nonmember friends. 
In every case they were most fa- 
vorably impressed with the build- 
ing, the program, the gracious 
members, and especially the 
young full-time missionaries. Many 
of the visitors are now investigat- 
ing." 

Approximately 7,000 members 
assisted with open houses in the 
mission in 1968. 

After the initial open houses in 
early 1968, President Henderson 
saw the need for better displays. 
Transparencies were obtained from 
Salt Lake City, and display boxes 
with fluorescent lights and other 
materials were made for the trav- 
eling displays. "The open houses 
have really been wonderful," says 
President Henderson. "They'll be 
even better this year. We'll hold 
100 or more over the mission." 

In the first nine open houses 
held in 1969, beginning with one 
in the new Nauvoo, Illinois, chapel, 
747 nonmembers have visited the 
displays and heard the message of 
the Church. The average this year 
has been 83 nonmembers per 
open house — more than four times 
the average of 1968. The atten- 
dance was particularly outstanding 
in the Nauvoo area, where more 
than 200 nonmembers heard the 
message of the Church. 

Missionaries have noted that 
the home evening demonstration 
has been effective with members 
as well as nonmembers — many 
members who previously had not 
been holding family home evenings 
have now begun to hold them. In 
all of 1968, 500 Family Home 
Evening Manuals were distrib- 
uted; in just one month (March) 
this year, 393 were given out. 



li 




. ' .. 





tar on 




•"It was him, Stanley!" 

Two Indian boys, 12 and 15 years old, crouched in a 
patch of scrub oak and yellow chamiso, their eyes 
squinting against the setting sun of the Painted Desert. 
They scanned the horizon for a flash of reddish-brown 
and white and listened like transfixed animals for a 
telltale whinny. 

"He came from the canyon. I know it was him," re- 
peated Reynolds in a coarse whisper. 

The younger boy closed his eyes against the glare 
and thought about his horse. He had been thrilled 
when Uncle Fitz found that mustang, trained it, and 
gave it to him to help herd the sheep. Last fall when 
Father had gone away on his construction job and he 
and Stanley had gone to foster homes in Los Angeles 
to go to school, they had had to let the horse go. 
Nobody was left to ride him. Then, too, it was hard 
enough to get food for the family through the winter, 
let alone to feed a horse. So they had taken off the 
stallion's rope bridle and watched him streak away 
toward Shadow Mountain. A horse can get pretty wild 
in a year. 

Reynolds sighed and moved from his haunches to 



12 



Improvement Era 



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W 



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^v- 



V- 



H 



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hadawMmmtai 

a cross-legged position in front of a tree. "He's gone 
again. I can't see or hear anything.'' 

"Let's just leave him, Reynolds. We go back to 
California next week anyway." 

There was a pause and then a stolid announcement. 
"I'm not going back!" 

"Not going back! How come? The Stacey's— I mean, 
I thought you liked them. You had everything you 
wanted—" 

"I know. But— well, there's so many rules with them. 
Here I am one of the Dineh. I can ride my horse for 
miles with the wind in my face and my knife at my 
side! No haircut, no bath, no bed to make, no hard 
lessons to do!" 

"But you have to go to school." 

"I'll go," Reynolds conceded. "I'll go to Tuba City 
Boarding School and come weekends to my horse." 

"Well, I'm going back," confirmed Stanley as he 
stood up, following a jackrabbit in the sight of his 
.22 rifle. "Have to, if I'm going to be a doctor some- 
time like Chee Begay." 

"Who needs the white man's language and school 
when I can shoot that rabbit 50 yards away?" Reynolds 



/ \ 



r\\ 



vV 



August 1969 



13 



Indians don't kiss/ 

he frowningly stated, 

as she put out her arms" 



spit into the dust and ended the conversation. 

The boys just sat. Stanley rested while Reynolds 
twirled a stick in the dust, remembering how it was 
when he went to Los Angeles last fall on the big 
silver bus. . . . 

First of all, he sure did Stanley a favor by smashing 
his glasses before they arrived so Stan wouldn't be 
embarrassed to meet his new parents. He just wished 
he'd done away with his straw hat too, because when 
they arrived at the big gym at the church nobody was 
wearing such a thing. 

The church hall was big and busy, with lots of 
lines to stand in, a dozen (he was sure) shots in the 
arm, swarms of strange faces trying to be friendly, 
new food that tasted too sweet, a chorus of noisy cars 
with anxious foster parents in them coming to pick up 
their children— all clanging together like a million 
crickets. 

Just don't kiss me, he thought, as he waited in the 
big room for his name to be called. 

"Reynolds Napa," called the caseworker in a voice 
that electrified him. 

He walked slowly to the small room to meet his 
foster family, forgetting even to say good-bye to Stan- 
ley. He hesitated at the door until the caseworker 
motioned him in before a mother, father, two brothers, 
and three sisters. He looked quickly away from their 
gaze, wishing he were a groundhog and could drop 
suddenly into a hole. The mother put out her arms, 
but he said, with his best frown, "Indians don't kiss." 
Her hand was soft as she shook his, and then she 
smiled, smelling like something sweet that made him 
want to sneeze. The father's arm felt warm on his 
shoulder as he took him to a long green car and drove 
to a house bigger than some of the big houses in Flag- 
staff. 

Reynolds' head swam with all the strangeness, but 
right off he found out about the rules and limits. There 
was a bike to ride, but you had to be careful of cars. 
You could run a block, but you had to stop when 
the light was red. Haircuts were every other Wednes- 
day—music lessons on Tuesday— Scouts on Thursday 



Carol Clark Ottesen, Relief Society instructor in the 
Palos Verdes (California) Ward, is mother of five and 
foster mother to an Indian boy from whose background 
arose this true story. 



—church on Sunday. And the air always smelled of 
gasoline! He had longed for a whiff of sage and the 
sharpness of the fall air on the desert, even if he did 
have a brand new Scout uniform! 

School was also hard. Everybody knew more than 
he did. The teacher talked fast and used words he 
didn't understand. He thought all the time of how 
smart he had been in boarding school and how dumb 
he was in California. 

Yet— he would miss Eric. Eric was vice-president of 
the students, and everybody liked him, but Reynolds 
smiled when he thought how he could wrestle his 
white brother to the floor of their bedroom. Eric had 
put a big gold star on the map of Arizona, right on 
Shadow Mountain, and every time Reynolds looked at 
it his mind drew a picture of home. Home. He 
thought of the special work of the Navajo for their 
homeland and said to himself, "Dinetkak—here is where 
I belong!" 

Reynolds ended his reveries as he rose abruptly and 
started in the direction of Shadow Mountain. "I'm not 
going to California, Stan. I want to be free— really 
free— to run until my chest hurts and tell time by the 
sun!" He broke into a run. "I'm going after my horse." 

Stanley followed, partly to humor his younger 
brother and because he, too, was exhilarated by the 
thought of a chase and capture. Resides, Reynolds 
couldn't get the stallion alone. 

They hiked until dark to the foot of the huge black 
mountain and sat to rest near a clump of yucca. The 
white cactus flowers rose like tall candles from their 
green candlesticks, lighted by a huge unobstructed 
moon. 

"Fire the gun, Stan, and see if that does any good." 

The older boy stood and fired one shot into the air 
nonchalantly. 

Then, suddenly, the brushes crackled, and from the 
dark shelter of a grove of pinion pine darted a brown 
and white mustang into a floodlight of moon on the 
open desert. 

"It is my horse!" 

With the spirit of his heterogeneous breeding, the 
small horse pounded past the boys, who were no less 
startled than the stallion. They sprang from the bush 
and ran like lizards over stone and brush after the 
horse. Stanley, with ready lariat, whirled the rope 
above his head and let it fly. It fell neatly around the 
horse's neck, tightened, and brought the animal to an 
abrupt halt. His forefeet climbed into the air, his 
white mane billowed like flames on his neck, and a 
frightful whinny sounded against the distant canyon 
wall. 

The horse's captor, who was jerked to the earth, 
rolled and turned in the dust with the coarse rope 



14 



Improvement Era 



grinding its way into his hands. 

"Mount him, Reynolds, mount him!" Stanley spit 
dust as he called to his brother. 

The younger boy stealthily approached the raging 
horse, speaking gently to him in Navajo. The horse 
calmed and eyed him warily, shying only as the small 
brown hand touched his flanks. The boy grabbed the 
rope, and with a quick leap he slipped onto the animal's 
back. No sooner had his legs dangled than the horse 
threw back his head and reared up again. Reynolds 
grabbed the mane and hugged his body low, hanging 
on fiercely. Stanley, who had stood up, brushing off 
dust and burrs, pulled the rope toward the trees to 
secure the horse. With the feel of a taut rope, the 
mustang leaped forward and bucked, sending Stanley 
to the ground on his face and pulling the rope from 
his raw hands. 

Now it was Reynolds alone as the horse galloped 
across the open land to the trees, pounding the turf 
as he reared to free himself of his small burden. But 
the slight boy clung tenaciously to the mane, some- 
times nearly slipping off, but righting himself between 
bucks. The horse's nostrils flared as he rose again 
with forefeet flailing, and the small brown boy slipped 
from the perspiration-soaked back of the horse and 
thudded to the rocky ground. He was stunned but 
still held the rope, and the horse stopped dead as the 
noose tightened around his neck. He strained as 
Reynolds jumped up quickly and tied him securely 
to the tree. Then the boy walked to the horse and 
laid his head against the slick white of the animal's 
neck. Breathing hard, they silently communicated a 
mutual concession. 

Stanley came running and waving, calling Reynolds 
by name. He withheld his awe and admiration with 
Indian (and brotherly) aplomb. "Are you hurt?" 

"No," said Reynolds, as he turned and fell un- 
conscious to the ground. 

The older boy looked down into his brother's broad 
Navajo face and pressed his ear to his chest. Reynolds 
had only fainted, but a nasty cut had opened up on 
his head. Stanley parted the thick blackness of his 
brother's hair and wiped the wound with his shirt-tail. 
"Not too bad, but he will need care." 

The horse paced, lifting and rearing to free him- 
self of the rope. 

"Stay here, szhlee'; you have met your match." 

He carried his brother about a half hour before 
they reached the hogan they called home. The small 
conical dwelling, made primarily of adobe held to- 
gether with brush and small logs, looked like an over- 
turned dish with a small door and fire hole in the 
center. A small woman, dressed in the brightly 
colored velvet blouse and heavily gathered skirt of the 



Navajo woman, stood at the door and silently mo- 
tioned them inside. 

As she cleaned the wound with salt water and 
juniper berry juice, the boys told of their adventure, 
first one and then the other, speaking in animated 
tones and gestures. Reynolds lay awake after every- 
one had gone to sleep, listening to the soft breathing 
of his family and dreaming of tomorrow and the 
horse. 

The next day, just as the sun first hit the red rock 
of the canyon, Reynolds was up, dressed, and on his 
way, sending several prairie dogs scurrying down 
their holes in his haste. He ran awhile and rested, ran 
and rested, until at last he reached the pine where 
he had tied up the horse the night before. Breathing 
hard, with perspiration soaking his headband, he 
looked unbelievingly at a four-foot long frayed rope 
and a patch of trampled weeds around the tree. Gone 
again! Hot tears stung his cheeks as he looked in every 
direction for the vagrant horse. Nowhere! Gone, as if 
last night had been only a dream! Gone, to roam the 
prairie with the coyote, fox, and other wild horses 
in the bitter struggle for survival in a desolate land! 
Why didn't he want to stay? Why? 

Reynolds took the long way home, still looking for 
the mustang, running up every rise for a better view 
and listening with an ear tuned to nature. Nowhere! 
The boy pictured him in a green canyon somewhere 
with other wild horses and half of a coarse yucca 
rope around his neck. He couldn't blame the horse, 
really. 

Nobody at home asked him what happened. They 
knew. But he thought about the horse all the way 
through a plate of fried potatoes and mutton pieces. 

That night, the brothers lay awake on the floor of 
the hogan. The mother and two small sisters slept 
on a mattress on the other side of a small fire pit in 
the middle of the round shelter. 

"Reynolds—" 

"What?" 

"Will you look for the horse next week after I go to 
California?" 

"No." 

"Why not?" 

"Why do you think? I'm going back to California 
with you." 

"How come?" 

"Wild horses aren't much good to anybody," 
Reynolds x said stoically, bringing up his knee and 
kicking Stanley off the rug. 

Laughing and rolling over, Stanley called out his 
brother's Indian name. "Nas'cha Yez'zi (Little Owl)!" 

Their mother turned in her sleep, and the boys froze 
on their rugs as- if they were woven in the fabric. O 



August 1969 



15 






• One definition of the 
word record reads : "To 
put in some permanent 
form; keep for remem- 
brance." Another, "to 
set down in writing so 
as to keep for future 
use. 

The messages of the 
prophets remind us 
that records among 
God's people have two 
primary purposes: 

1. To help people de- 
velop spiritually and 

progress toward immortality and a glorious eternal life. 

2. To serve as instruments in the hands of selected 
servants of God in judging people under their juris- 
diction. 

Some of the greatest of the prophets were authors 
and keepers of the records, including Moses, Samuel, 
Isaiah, Nephi, Mormon, Moroni, John, and Paul. 

Records through the ages have been lasting com- 
munication lines between the Lord's prophets and his 



Tips on how 

to get the most 

out of reports--and make 

them work for you 



How to U 



of records in judging: 
". . . and another book 
was opened, which was 
the book of life; but 
the dead were judged 
out of those things 
which were written in 
the books, according to 
, their works. . . . And 
the book which was the 
book of life is the rec- 
ord which is kept in 
heaven. . . ." (D&C 
128:7.) 
Thus records have 
been important with God's people through the ages 
and are important today. They are vital to all who 
have positions of leadership in the Church, to help 
people in their quest toward eternal life and to assist 
in the judgment and judging in the kingdom. 

It must always be remembered that records have 
never been the goal nor the end product in the Church, 
either ancient or restored. Rather, they have served as 
tools in the upbuilding of individuals and thereby the 



people. Through records people have been lifted to upbuilding of the kingdom of God. 



a greater knowledge of the Lord; they have learned 
his divine will and his plan and guideposts for journey- 
ing on the joyful path that leads back into his presence. 
It is important to stress this matter of communica- 
tion. With good two-way channels of communication 



Records are passive; reports are, or should be, alive 
and vibrant. Note one of the definitions of a report: 
'An account of something seen, heard, read, done, or 
considered." Notice that the verbs are all action words. 
Another definition reads: "An account officially ex- 



open and functioning, weaknesses may be avoided and pressed, generally in writing." 



strong points fortified. 

But records are more than lines for lifting us heaven- 
ward. That brings us to their second primary purpose: 
to serve as instruments in the hands of selected servants 
of God in judging people under their jurisdiction. 



Reports need to be complete, accurate, legible, neat, 
and in on time; and they should provide information 
upon which valid decisions can be made. These would 
include copies of notes, minutes, statistical and other 
reports that are prepared by the clerks and secretaries 



To Nephi, the Lord spoke: "For I command all men, and distributed to the administrative officers for study 

. . . that they shall write the words which I speak unto and consideration. 

them; for out of the books which shall be written I Reports should contain information on factors that 

will judge the world, every man according to their will lead to action on the part of the leaders receiving 

works, according to that which is written." (2 Ne. them. A report should be in the best possible form 

29:11.) for the presentation of the subject matter. 

In this dispensation, the Lord has said of the role Reports are to be submitted to and used by the 




16 



Improvement Era 



By Elder Delbert L. Stapley f\ 

Of the Council of the Twelve : »J 



se Records and Reports 




administrative officers of the wards and branches, the 
stakes and missions throughout the Church. It is the 
responsibility of these leaders to see that the reports 
are correctly completed. 

It is also the responsibility of the presiding authority 
in every case to select and train those who will act on 
the reports as well as those who will prepare them. A 
strong leader knows that if he develops his associates, 
he will become even stronger. 

Even greater attention will be given by the General 
Authorities to the selection of stake administrative offi- 
cers and clerks as they are chosen, sustained, and set 
apart. The responsibility each has toward the reports 
will be stressed at the time of the call. A good leader 
inspires other men and women with confidence in him; 
a great leader inspires them with confidence in 
themselves. 

After proper and prayerful selection, the chosen 
stake clerks will train their assistants and they together 
will train the secretaries to the priesthood quorums 
and auxiliaries, as well as the ward clerks and then- 
assistants. The ward clerks in turn will train their 
assistants and the secretaries to the Aaronic Priesthood 
quorums and the secretaries to the ward auxiliaries. 
The better informed these important workers are, the 
better jobs they will be able to perform, and time spent 
in training these people in the proper functioning of 
their work will be rewarded by better reports that will 
enable the administrative officers to do a better job. 

Good reports spotlight the weak areas requiring 
attention and also point up the areas of strength. The 
leader can detect whether a unit is progressing or 
retrogressing, whether the people under his jurisdiction 
are developing spirituality or declining in spirituality. 
Accurate reports reveal the direction in which the 
organization is going, and emphasis should be placed 
constantly on the correct preparation of the reports 
and to assure that reports are submitted on or before 
the due date. Reports should be reviewed carefully 
and comments made in the space provided. This is 
the best evidence that the report has been studied and 
hopefully used. 

An able leader uses reports as a mariner uses his 



compass : to check the course and to learn the direction 
in which he is traveling. Good reports can be the eyes 
of the administrators in watching the progress on the 
various church fronts that are his responsibility. The 
effective leader will study and review reports faithfully. 
As he studies good reports, he will see the figures and 
statistics come alive, and instead of numbers he may 
see that Jack Jones has not been graduated from Pri- 
mary as a second class Scout, that he hasn't been or- 
dained to the Aaronic Priesthood, nor has he started 
to attend MIA meetings. 

A well-advised leader can advise his flock well. He 
can be specific in complimenting meritorious accom- 
plishments and give pinpoint encouragement in in- 
stances where improvement can be attained or where 

more appropriate ac- 
tion is required. 

Local leaders should 
study the reports dili- 
gently. They should 
have the facts and fig- 
ures at all times. It may 
be well to remember 
the adage, "Leadership 
filters down from the 
top; it doesn't bubble 
up from the bottom." 
With good records 
and reports, a leader can evaluate his own performance. 
He can compare the performance of his people now 
in contrast to a month ago, a year ago, or even two 
years ago or longer. Someone has said, "Nothing is 
good or bad except by comparison." It is better to be 
one's own severest critic and to make comparisons 
with himself and his standards rather than with others. 
Here are some areas of comparison: The gospel teaches 
eternal progression. What progress are the Church 
members under my jurisdiction making? What per- 
centage of them are attending sacrament meeting now, 
compared with a month ago? A year ago? Two years 
ago? What percentage of adult members are qualify- 
ing for temple recommends? What percentage of mar- 
riages are being performed in the temple? In which 





August 1969 



17 





direction are we moving in the percentage of our 
youth attending seminary or institutes? These are 
merely examples; the properly prepared reports will 
reveal many other items of importance. 

Statistical reports represent the actions of indi- 
viduals, and we should ever be mindful that what 
matters is our concern with the child of God within 
our area of responsibility, and not the figure that rep- 
resents him on the report. 

There are other important considerations in the lives 
of individuals that concern the leader that are not 
reflected in the records or reports, but records and 
reports are yardsticks we need to use continually for 
measuring performance. 

A leader who leads without using his records and 
reports is like a pilot flying without instruments. He 
should question the trends shown in the reports and 
ask why. Then he can make the necessary moves to 
strengthen the situation or situations. 

An effective and dedicated leader will set goals for 
himself. Once he determines through a study of the 
reports where his organization has been going in cer- 
tain areas of performance, he can weigh where he 
wants to go in helping people grow spiritually. 

Through the use of written reports the leader can 
review on a month-to-month basis the big picture of 
the entire program of the Church, as it seeks to exalt 
the individual. Records and reports help the wise 
leader to keep the program in proper balance and 
relationship. 

In the divine plan of things, the individual is su- 
preme. The programs of the Church and the reports 
of their functioning are aimed to help each member of 
the Church enjoy a more meaningful life here and 
hereafter. This will be accomplished as we improve 
our lines of communications; a well-informed worker 
is a more effective worker. 

Reports of the various activities of the Church come 
together at the intersection of the bishop's desk. Under 
priesthood correlation the bishop becomes more in- 
terested in individuals than in programs, even though 
the church programs are vitally necessary. He will be 
more interested in filling their needs and in helping 
them move heavenward than in turning in a favorable 
statistical report. He will review the reports in terms 
of what the activities in his ward are doing toward 
uplifting individuals. He will study the figures as 
symbols of souls. He will probe beyond those symbols 
and into the lives of the people he has been called to 
lead. Good reports will follow good activity; good 




reports will reflect the performance of dedicated 
members. 

A wise bishop will use reports for guidance in his 
oral evaluations with priesthood leaders. He will use 
reports for his discussions at ward executive and coun- 
cil meetings. He will use the records to inquire about 
specific families, both the active and the inactive. He 
will use the figures to help guide him and his asso- 
ciates in making the moves necessary for building souls. 
The stake president similarly will want to probe with 
his bishops and priesthood leaders beyond the reports. 

He will want to know 
how each bishop is 
meeting the responsi- 
bility of planning for 
and meeting the needs 
of the people in his 
ward. Regional Rep- 
resentatives of the 
Twelve will likewise 
inquire how a stake 
president is working 
with his bishops in 
serving his people. 
Similarly, General Authorities, as they meet with 
Regional Representatives of the Twelve and stake 
presidents, will want to learn how programs are help- 
ing people. 

But in all this effort to build souls, the time, the 
talent, and the energies of the leader will be far more 
productive if he studies, interprets, and wisely uses 
reports. These records will be more useful to him 
if they are accurate, complete, and punctual. The 
able leader will therefore choose capable record 
keepers. He will see that they are trained and that 
they know their duty fully. 

Indeed, the first purpose of records and reports is 
to help every man and woman to grow through know- 
ing Jesus the Christ and in following his plan toward 
perfection and eternal life. Moroni, one of the great 
recorders in the cause of the Lord, gave this counsel 
for all of us as he sealed up his record: 

"Yea, come unto Christ, and be perfected, in him, 
and deny yourselves of all ungodliness; and if ye shall 
deny yourselves of all ungodliness and love God with 
all your might, mind and strength, then is his grace 
sufficient for you, that by his grace ye may be perfect 
in Christ. ..." (Moro. 10:32.) 

I pray that the Lord will bless us that we may be 
equal to our tasks. O 



^ 



18 



Improvement Era 




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Aug. 1969 Era 




Dear Mother and Father: 

We know what your problem is: one or more 
of your adolescent children is in open re- 
bellion. Your youngster is showing this 
rebellion in behavior so conformist and 
stereotyped that we, who may never have met 
you, can say how it manifests itself. 

His clothes are extreme to the point of 
ugliness in style, fit, and color. His best 
friends are similarly attired. He "goes ape" 
over music that is mind-poundingly loud. 
(This does not in any way imply that all youth 
who like loud music are rebelling. ) 

If he is not openly disrespectful to you 
and his teachers, he is taciturn and moody 
and gives the general impression of having 
withdrawn his moral support from you, the 
family, the church, and society. 

This posture may be more than a pose, be- 
cause he may have experimented with drugs and 
undergone experiences that have as one of 
their effects the altering of attitudes. 

Your own attitudes, as you have tried to 
work with him, have ranged from anger and 
outrage to despair and disbelief. (It can't 
be happening to us !) 

You may have, now or in the future, the 
added pain of an alienation that is not of 
your making. If your child is old enough to 
leave home, you may not know where he is for 
long periods of time. Your magnanimous 
avowal, "We will always love you— in sorrow or 
joy, " may not keep the door open between you. 
As his behavior deviates from that of the 
family, he will feel uncomfortable with you 



20 



Improvement Era 




because you represent a conscience he does 
not choose to acknowledge. Later, when he 
has put behind him the unacceptable conduct, 
his low assessment of himself will still con- 
stitute a barrier between him and you. 

What can you do? In current jargon, keep 
your cool ! This seemingly flippant and impu- 
dent suggestion comes from someone who has 
"been there." And we are willing to expose 
ourselves because we believe it may comfort 
you to know you are not alone, as we felt we 
were when we had our trial by fire. 

Our explorations for help within the church 
and the community revealed to us that we were 
standing on virgin territory. We were like 
pioneers in this sociological area. But we 
would have willingly foregone that distinc- 
tion to have been able to trade places with 
another kind of pioneer, the American fron- 
tiersman who could see his enemy and come to 
grips with the problem of existence on a sim- 
ple physical basis. Our foe was much more 
elusive. How do you grapple with an evil 
that seems to be eating at your spiritual 
foundations? 

A grown child of ours had introduced serious 
trouble into our home. The jaws of hell were 
gaping open to receive us. That was how it 
seemed then, and that is how it seems now, 
even in restrospect. 

Some of the experiences we lived through 
would have made plot material for a sensation- 
ridden third-rate movie. But we lived through 
them. We even survived the down-in-the-depths 
rationale: "If our best efforts through all 
these years have produced this, there must be 



An Open Letter 
to Anguished 
Parents 



August 1969 



21 



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22 



Improvement Era 



a fatal flaw in the fabric of our family life. We had better not stay around to jeop- 
ardize the chances of our other children." 

There were times when we were sure we could not stiffen our spines sufficiently 
to merely keep going. But we did, all praise to a loving Father who heard our pleas. 

Survival is what we celebrate today. Not victory-yet. So do not ask us what 
we did or how we solved our problem. We did the obvious and logical thing that each 
moment called for. And the doing largely proved fruitless, except as therapy for 
our fevered souls. As someone has said, "The Lord will not impose his will upon those 
who will not accept it." 

The clue here is that you have an open field of action until his mind is made up. 
You may beg, plead, scold, admonish, adjure, urge, beseech, implore, command, en- 
treat, and work through all the other verbs that constitute appeal. It will probably 
not do much good. It did not produce the results we wanted. 

But take heart. In your very real need you have one strong advocate: time— time 
to come, the soothing unguent that is smoothed into our wounds by the older and more 
experienced when they say, of any problem, "Just give it time. " Not only future but , 
if your living has justified it, time past is also working for you. 

How have things been for this child in all the years before the current crisis? 
What has been the quality of your family life together? Have you loved your children? 
Have you been available to them when they needed you? Have you demonstrated your 
love of God by keeping his laws-part icularly those that relate to loving? 

Yes? Then you have less to fear than this present anxious period portends. And 
then, if the quality of your present and future performance matches the quality of 
your past performance, you will have done all you can do and will therefore have 
still less to fear. You will enjoy, instead, a measure of peace. 

We know a bit more now about rebellion than we did at first. We know it has a season. 
And we know that when the season has ended, maturity comes with its mellower attitudes. 
We know that, despite alarming symptoms, all but a troubled few do finally mature. 

We know a bit more about drugs, too. We would not minimize their danger. To have an- 
other youngster of ours experiment with them would be the last thing we would wish for. 

It has been almost universally acknowledged that troubled personalities tend to 
acquire unhealthy dependencies, such as drug dependencies, which often develop into 
addiction. But there is another truth not quite so universally acknowledged. 

Many, healthy young people are going to quit using drugs before becoming addicted 
simply because the drugs do not produce for them what they want in their lives. They 
will usually realize that what they want is a close approximation of what they have 
had. Has what they have had been good enough? 

This is what we are banking on with our painfully acquired new "cool." We cannot 
believe that the immutable laws of justice will permit the aberrant behavior of a 
year or two or three to cancel out the good of all the other years. There will be a 
turning point. There will be a way back, however long. We are beginning to see 
strong evidences of it in young people who have gone the rebellion route and are now 
consolidating their losses and becoming mature and responsible adults. 

That is the sum of our wishes on the subject. But our experience has taught us 
some valuable lessons about parental power-its broad and narrow limits-and we feel 
somehow sanctified by those lessons. We are taking great care not to be arrogant 
in the use of that power. 

We know a little more about love, as well: its resiliencies, its softnesses. We 
think we have a better understanding of God's love. 

No, Mother and Father, there is not much you can do except endure. We are trying 
to endure with some of the humility and grace implied in this quatrain: 

They might not need me-but they might. A smile as small as mine might be 
I'll let my head be just in sight. Precisely their necessity. 

(Emily Dickinson) 
In some of life's extremities, even a hackneyed statement can afford hope : "All 
things come to him who waits"-even, perchance, the love of an errant child for his 
parents and for his God. . ._ 

Two Parents Who Are Waiting 

August 1969 23 



Oh. for 

Pete's sake, 

Harold, come 

back here 

and act 




The F^y That Doesn't 
Come i n a n Envelope 



By Wayne B. Lynn 



Illustrated by Don Young 



• "Some of your pay will be the heart overflowing, his words were 

kind that doesn't come in an enve- recalled again in sweet memory. 
lope," the supervisor said. Five The assurance given years before 

years later, as I walked through had been realized many times, but 

the doors of the holy temple with today was special. To appreciate 



this moment, we must go back 
more than five years to a teacher 
struggling within himself to decide 
whether a seminary assignment 
should be accepted in lieu of em- 
ployment offering greater financial 
advantage. Perhaps the intimation 
of "the kind of pay that doesn't 
come in an envelope" tipped the 
scales toward a decision in favor of 
the seminary assignment. 

Events leading up to this beauti- 
ful experience in the temple began 
on one of those days when my mood 
matched the dismal weather out- 
side. That day, a sharp wind was 
carrying bits of paper and debris 
in a snake-like procession down the 
trash-strewn alley and past the 
doorstep, where it lodged in an ugly 
pile against the woven wire fence. 
Skies overhead were dark and 
threatening, and to me the whole 
world seemed gloomy. 

I stood looking out the spattered 
kitchen windows, where a light 
rain made small wet spots that 
were quickly blown over with loose 
dirt. Even the dirty windows 
matched my darkened feeling. This 
was ,not a good way to feel, and T 
battled against it. Moving to the 
desert sands of Arizona was a 
change in itself from the green 
mountains and water-filled streams 
of the section of Wyoming that was 
home to me. 

Released-time seminary had been 
granted there that year for the first 
time, and President William E. 
Berrett counseled the local brethren 
to commence immediately holding 
released-time classes. 

Time did not permit the construc- 
tion of a building. The first day 
of seminary, classes were held in 
a Boy Scout bus parked on the 
vacant lot that hopefully was to 
be the site for our new building. 
Those who have traveled with 
young boys can imagine the condi- 
tion of the bus— a somewhat differ- 
ent situation from the commodious 



24 



Improvement Era 



classrooms and office to which 1 
had been accustomed. 

Forces of opposition seemed to 
battle our every step in trying to 
rent a building for seminary pur- 
poses. Houses were promised, only 
to be withdrawn when pressures 
from outside sources became too 
great. The second week of school 
had commenced before we suc- 
ceeded in renting a small frame 
house— a very humble dwelling next 
to the alley and opposite the high 
school. Kitchen cupboards soon be- 
came library shelves; cabinets were 
full of student journals; the small 
living room became our classroom; 
the single bedroom became an of- 
fice; and a duplicator was pre- 
cariously perched on a bathroom 
shelf. We stacked paper supplies 
in the bathtub with fingers crossed, 
hopeful that no one would turn on 
the water. 

In the town, rumors and contro- 
versy, surrounded by exaggeration 
and misunderstanding, greeted our 
new program of released-time semi- 
nary. Although efforts were made 
to calm troubled waters, little was 
added to the popularity of the new 
seminary teacher who had become 
a symbol of the controversy. 

So here I stood at a spattered 
window, looking out at the clouded 
skies and trash-filled alley and ask- 
ing myself if it was worth it. 

My reflections were short-lived, 
however, as a group of energetic 
students soon arrived and began 
crowding into the improvised class- 
room. Chairs were rapidly filled, 
and little space was left for the 
teacher. 

Knowing that a teacher must be 
happy in order to succeed with his 
class, I cast off my gloomy spell 
and launched into the lesson with 
as much enthusiasm as I could pos- 
sibly muster. I was rewarded with 
appreciative interest and participa- 
tion by most of the students— that is 
to say, all of them except the back 



row of senior boys, who leaned 
back in their chairs and issued an 
unspoken challenge for any teacher 
to reach them. 

Following class discussion, I gave 
a reading assignment in their text, 
the Book of Mormon. The boys on 
the back row were slow to open 
their books, and I noted that one 
did not respond at all. His book lay 
unopened on the arm shelf of his 
chair while he looked at me as if 
to say, "Just try to make me like 
this class!" 

My gloomy mood returned in 
spite of myself, and I again asked 
myself, "Is it worth it?" Then I 
made a very conscious resolve. That 
young man with the unopened 
book, whom I will call Jim, would 
answer this question for me. "All 
right, Jim, old kid," I said to my- 
self, "you will be my measuring 
stick. I won t give you any special 
attention above other students, but 
I will use you as a gauge of my 
success or failure. If I fail to reach 
you, then I will have the answer to 
my question." This unspoken pledge 
was important to me in the days 
that followed, but it was pushed to 
the back of my mind with the press 
of everyday tasks. 

Classes continued, and our old 
building began to be looked upon 
with tolerance and growing fond- 
ness in spite of its inconvenience. 

In the meantime, a conference 
with the high school principal pro- 
vided me with insight into the 
challenges I faced with some of my 
students. I was particularly con- 
cerned about the senior boys. When 
I mentioned Jim's name, the reac- 
tion was electric. 

"Let me show you something," 
the principal said, stepping to his 
file cabinet. 

After a brief pause he pulled 
Jim's file from a drawer, opened it, 
and began reading a few comments 
that had been submitted by various 
teachers: "Drunk and disorderly at 



the school dance." "Profane and 
abusive language directed at the 
teacher." "Disrespectful and rebel- 
lious toward authority." 

"I would like to see you reach 
that kid!" was the principal's com- 
ment, and I wondered again at the 
task I had set for myself. 

As weeks passed, I became much 
closer to my students, and strong 
bonds of friendship were formed 
through spiritual experiences we 
shared in class. Then, several 
months after the beginning of 
school, I almost unconsciously be- 
came aware of some changes in 
Jim's attitude. The book on his 
desk, which had long remained un- 
opened, was finally being opened 
and read with interest. He began 
to ask questions and participate in 
class discussions. 

Several little incidents reflected 
Jim's change in attitude, but one 
stands out above the rest. It was 
the day we talked about conten- 
tions. Our lesson was structured 
around the counsel given by the 
Savior: 

"For verily, verily I say unto you, 
he that hath the spirit of contention 
is not of me, but is of the devil, who 
is the father of contention, and he 
stirreth up the hearts of men to con- 
tend with anger, one with another." 
(3 Ne. 11:29.) 

I previously arranged with one 
sometimes-rowdy student to assist 
me with an object lesson demon- 
strating bad feelings we have when 
there is a spirit of contention. With 
my permission, he deliberately 
came into class late, banged down 
his books, and sprawled out in his 
seat without apology. 

In anger I snapped at him, 
"What's the big idea? Why are you 
late? I don't like vour attitude one 
bit!" 

Indignantly he shouted back, 
"Well, I didn't ask to take this 
class!" 

I retorted in kind, "Well, we can 



August 1969 



25 



get along without you!" Whereupon 
he gathered up his books and 
angrily stomped out of the room. 

A quietness filled the classroom 
until Jim's spontaneous comment 
broke the silence, "Oh, for Pete's 
sake, Harold, come back here and 
act your age!" 

We had a lot of fun that day 
bringing Harold back into class and 
reestablishing order. We talked 
about how terrible we felt when 
there was a spirit of contention in 
the class, but the thing we most 
remembered was Jim's comment 
and his obvious desire to be a part 
of a good seminary class. 

Skies seemed brighter after that 
day. My days would often be easier 
when I would overhear comments 
by students, such as, "Have you no- 
ticed the change in Jim lately? The 
boys he buddies around with say 
he won't even take a drink any- 
more." 

One day a senior boy lingered 
behind after class and said, "I have 
something to tell you that you might 
be interested in. You know, part 
of my home teaching assignment is 
to go with my companion to Jim's 
house. Well, the other night when 
we were there my senior companion 
was talking to Jim's parents, and the 
old subject of taking time from 
school for seminary came up again. 



Jim's mother rather forcefully said, 
'I'm against it myself; I don't think 
they should mix church and school.' 
Then she turned to Jim and asked, 
'What do you think, Jim?' Jim 
looked at her and said, 'Mother, it 
is the greatest desire of my heart to 
become a seminary teacher.' His 
mother nearly fell out of her chair!" 

Jim never spoke to me about any 
of this, but his humble spirit told 
me much more than words could 
express. His decision to live accord- 
ing to the Lord's way was also a 
strong influence on his friends who 
followed his example. There was 
even talk about Jim's desiring to. fill 
a mission. Students told me that he 
had decided to attend college for 
one year, preparing himself to serve 
the Lord as a missionary. 

The following winter I received 
a letter from Jim, who was away 
from home attending the university. 
By that time we had moved into a 
beautiful new seminary building, 
located on the same spot where we 
had parked the bus only a year 
before. We had left our rented 
house near the alley with an emo- 
tional farewell. 

Jim's letter brought a lump to my 
throat : "I don't know how to thank 
you. . . ." He poured out the feel- 
ings of his heart in a way that he 
had been unable to do in person. 



Wayne B. Lynn of the Orem (Utah) 29th Ward is seminary curriculum coordi- 
nator for Lamanites throughout the Church and serves on a Church Lamanite 
lesson writing committee. 



"I have come a long way," he con- 
tinued. "I watched you all year and 
waited for you to make a mistake." 
This frightened me! Then came his 
request; "I don't know if they have 
told you, but next month I leave for 
my mission. Will you speak at my 
farewell?" 

Today as I drove through the 
early morning darkness to the tem- 
ple, my thoughts returned to Jim. 
I thought about the mission he had 
honorably filled, and the sweet 
young girl he was about to marry. 
I thought about all the other young- 
sters who had presented such a 
challenge and had become so spe- 
cial to me. My soul filled with 
warmth as I remembered that every 
senior boy that year had now com- 
pleted an honorable mission for the 
Church. Many were married, as Jim 
was being married today, in the 
house of the Lord. They were fine 
young men, and I felt toward them 
as Helaman did toward the fine 
young men with whom he asso- 
ciated; and like him, I called them 
my "sons." 

The temple ceremony was beauti- 
ful. Clothed in white, the couple 
knelt at the altar and exchanged 
vows of eternal love and devotion. 

As I walked from this beautiful 
house of God, I tasted of the fruit 
of being a teacher. I had taken a 
large bite of "the kind of pay that 
doesn't come in an envelope," and 
it was delicious. O 



Uprooted Dream 
By Marel Brown 



We mutely watch machines cut rich, red earth; 
We hold our breath, as fire consumes our trees; 
We close our eyes and see, in fresh rebirth, 
Those dreams we planted, in rich memories. 
And now, with roots of dreams laid bare and dry — 
The ground itself consumed by roads of change — 
We bravely stand, while progress stings each eye, 



And stifle anguished cries at wheels' full range. 

Yet none there are in all the workman's crew 

Who sense how deep the scrape cuts spirit-flesh; 

None stays a hand, nor stops what he must do; 

Each shift of gears lays other wounds afresh. 

Not strange — for who could share our muted scream 

Who has not felt a blade uproot a dream! 



26 



Improvement Era 



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August 1969 



27 



New Evidence from 
Modern Witnesses 

Part 10 

( Conclusion ) 



Lucy Mack Smith 
Emma Smith 




wmwi\ 



By Dr. Richard Lloyd Anderson 



Illustrated by Lynn Freeman 



• The first believers in the Book of 
Mormon were members of Joseph 
Smith's family. But if three of the 
eight witnesses were Smiths and the 
remaining ones in the Whitmer 
group, it does not follow that family 
relationship explains away their 
testimony. The truth of the Book 
of Mormon story is better attested 
by those who knew its events per- 
sonally than by strangers to these 
proceedings. Including married 
partners, the Smiths and Whitmers 
comprised about two dozen adults, 
none of whom expressed less than 
complete faith in the genuineness 
of the translation process. 

Like the resurrection appearances 
of the New Testament, there are 
unofficial witnesses surrounding 
those more formally designated. 
Mother Whitmer reported seeing 
the plates, and Mother Smith de- 
scribed handling two of the ancient 
objects found with the plates. Two 
others reported their physical im- 
pressions of handling the ancient 
record while it was wrapped in a 
protective covering. Emma, Joseph's 
wife, felt the thin edges of the 
record as she moved it in dusting, 1 
and Joseph's brother William both 
felt its shape and lifted the record, 
estimating the weight at about 
sixty pounds. 2 



The three Smiths who formally 
gave their names as seeing and 
handling the plates were the 
Prophet's father, Joseph Smith, Sr.; 
the Prophet's immediately older 
brother, Hyrum; and his immedi- 
ately younger brother, Samuel Har- 
rison.' They sometimes joined the 
other Book of Mormon witnesses to 
reaffirm their testimony printed in 
the 1830 edition of the Book of 
Mormon regarding lifting and turn- 
ing the leaves of the plates. After 
quoting the published statements of 
the three and eight witnesses, and 
describing the experience of the lat- 
ter group, Lucy Smith relates, "The 
ensuing evening, we held a meeting, 
in which all the witnesses bore 
testimony to the facts as stated 
above. . . .'"'' Two years later, in the 
period of dynamic preaching of the 
early elders, a conference was held 
near Cleveland, Ohio, remembered 
by Luke Johnson as follows ■ "At this 
conference the eleven witnesses to 
the Book of Mormon, with uplifted 
hands, bore their solemn testimony 
to the truth of that book, as did 
also the Prophet Joseph." 4 

A study of the Smith witnesses 
must stress deeds more than words. 
Modest and unaffected, these men 
left few formal statements, but 
above all they lived consistently 



with their commitment to Christian 
principles and modern revelation. 
Although not parading their printed 
testimony, they personally sacri- 
ficed for their convictions. Their 
sincerity is powerful evidence for 
the existence of the Book of Mor- 
mon plates and more. The father 
and the two brothers nearest 
Joseph's age constantly lived and 
worked with him, and from this 
intimate vantage point completely 
accepted his report of his visions. 

Hyrum and Samuel Smith had 
joined the Presbyterian Church 
with their mother, who later re- 
lated the visit of a church commit- 
tee to persuade them to abandon 
their convictions about the Book 
of Mormon then being printed. The 
chief spokesman believed that 
"Joseph never had the plates," and 
asked Hyrum if he did not think 
himself deceived. The witness an- 
swered simply, "No sir, I do not." 
After unsatisfactory attempts to 
break down his story, similar ques- 
tions were directed to Samuel, who 
defied his interrogators with scrip- 
ture about false shepherds."' Local 
church records confirm the conver- 
sation, since they refer to the visit 
of the committee, which reported 
that they "received no satisfaction" 
from talking with Lucy, Hyrum, 



28 



Improvement Era 




and Samuel Smith. 6 The result was 
suspension from Presbyterian mem- 
bership, a symptom of the ostracism 
inflicted by their community for 
their faith in the Book of Mormon. 
In the face of ridicule and intimi- 
dation, the 22-year-old Samuel 
Smith took copies of the new scrip- 
ture to neighboring regions of 
western New York right after the 
Church was organized in April 
1830. Phineas Young later recalled 
the blend of humility and conviction 
with which the Prophet's younger 
brother presented the Book of Mor- 
mon. Without introduction, Samuel 
handed a book to Phineas with the 
request that he read it. Finding that 
it claimed to be a revelation, 
Phineas took the book from Samuel, 
"and by his request looked at the 
testimony of the witnesses." The 
missionary then promised his inves- 
tigator a witness from God if he 
would read the book prayerfully. 
Upon agreeing that he would, 
Phineas asked the name of the mis- 
sionary, who only then identified 
himself as Samuel H. Smith. Young 
reported the closing words of this 
conversation: " 'Ah,' said I, 'You are 
one of the witnesses.' 'Yes,' said he, 
'I know the book to be a revelation 
from God, translated by the gift and 
power of the Holy Ghost, and that 



my brother Joseph Smith, Jr., is a 
Prophet, Seer and Revelator.' " 7 

It is doubtful whether anyone 
exceeded Samuel Smith's record of 
active missionary service during the 
earliest years of the latter-day 
Church. Moving with the Saints 
to Ohio in 1831, he left a character- 
istically concise record of a two- 
month mission with Reynolds 
Cahoon in the counties around 
Cleveland, in which he summarized 
his own preaching: "I spoke of the 
testimony which the Lord had 
given to the people of this genera- 
tion of his work, the fulness of the 
gospel, his everlasting covenant, 
and bore testimony of these 
things." 8 Scores of converts ac- 
cepted the personal assurance of 
this plain-spoken youth who had 
known the events of the restoration 
from the beginning. 

Samuel Smith's best-documented 
mission is one mentioned in the 
Doctrine and Covenants, which in- 
structed him and Orson Hyde to 
"take their journey into the eastern 
countries, and proclaim the things 
which I have commanded them.'"' 
Both men kept journals indicating 
that the presentation and testimony 
of the Book of Mormon was one of 
the major themes of their preaching. 
The witness was ridiculed periodi- 
cally for his simple reiteration of 
his testimony: "The people gath- 
ered around us and asked a great 
many questions about the plates, 
etc., and many of them used much 
lightness." 1 " Daniel Tyler was con- 
verted as a result of this mission and 
later recalled the missionary visit 
to Erie County, Pennsylvania: 

"In the spring of 1832, Elders 
Samuel H. Smith and Orson Hyde 
. . . came to our neighborhood and 
held a few meetings. Elder Smith 
read the 29th chapter of Isaiah at 
the first meeting and delineated the 
circumstances of the coming forth 
of the Book of Mormon, of which 
he said he was a witness. He knew 
his brother Joseph had the plates, 



for the prophet had shown them to 
him, and he had handled them and 
seen the engravings thereon. His 
speech was more like a narrative 
than a sermon." 11 

Anyone who studies the person- 
ality of Samuel H. Smith must 
admit that he is not likely to have 
invented such testimony. A dutiful 
son, loyal brother, and kindly 
father, his life is the essence of sin- 
cerity. Of sufficient capacity to be 
named to the first high council of 
the Church in 1834, and be elected 
by his fellow councilors as president 
in 1837, yet Samuel was not ambi- 
tious. When not in arduous mis- 
sionary service, he farmed or hired 
out as a laborer. In Nauvoo he was 
named a bishop and was elected a 
city alderman. This public success 
marks a deep respect for him based 
on his character, not cleverness. His 
missionary companion called him "a 
man slow of speech and unlearned, 
yet a man of good faith and ex- 
treme integrity." 1 " His patriarch- 
father blessed him as "loved of the 
Lord" because of his "faithfulness 
and truth." 1 ' 5 Samuel H. Smith's 
inner motivation is best revealed in 
the minutes of an early speech, indi- 
cating that "ever since he had set 
out to serve the Lord he had con- 
cluded not to regard the favor of 
man but the favor of heaven." 14 
The consistency of his testimony 
and the evident honesty of the man 
sustain the reality of his experience 
of handling the plates. 

The same may be said of the 
Prophet's father for similar reasons. 
A deeply religious and humble 
man, Joseph Smith, Sr., was not a 
person who exaggerated his worth. 
One of his few personal statements 
was recorded at the crest of his 
service to the Church, his intense 
patriarchal ministry of giving bless- 
ings at Kirtland. One meets the 
man himself in this address to his 
family, just prior to blessing them 
in 1834. Although he had always 
held family scripture reading and 



August 1969 



29 



"Young Joe (as we 
called him then). ..was 
a good worker; they 
were.. . poor people" 



prayer, he referred to his earlier 
life when the Smiths were unable 
to agree on the validity of any 
church : 

"I have not always set that ex- 
ample before my family that I 
ought. I have not been diligent in 
teaching them the commandments 
of the Lord, but have rather mani- 
fested a light and trifling mind. 
But in all this I have never denied 
the Lord. Notwithstanding all this 
my folly, which has been a cause 
of grief to my family, the Lord has 
often visited me in visions and in 
dreams, and has brought me, with 
my family, through many afflic- 
tions, and I this day thank his holy 
name. 15 

One so truthful about himself 
would not likely be a party to a 
religious hoax. Joseph Smith, Sr., 
was a practical man who never 
aspired to public acclaim. He had 
brief careers in teaching and busi- 
ness, but he worked with his hands 
most of. his life as a cooper or 
farmer. His candid modesty en- 
deared him to all those who ever 
had intimate contact with him. His 
wife characterized him "an affec- 
tionate companion and tender 
father, as ever blessed the confi- 
dence of a family." 16 Edward 
Stevenson voiced the impression of 
many a member of the Church: 
"Naturally Father Smith was not a 
man of many words, but sober- 
minded, firm, mild and impres- 
sive." 17 Joseph Smith, Jr., considered 
him "a great and a good man," pos- 
sessing an "exalted, and virtuous 
mind." These phrases and the fol- 
lowing assessment come from a son 
who knew his father's life as few 



individuals could: "I now say that 
he never did a mean act, that might 
be said was ungenerous in his life, 
to my knowledge." 18 If those near- 
est Joseph Smith, Sr., could in- 
variably rely on his personal good- 
ness and strict integrity, his printed 
testimony of seeing and handling 
the plates may not lightly be 
questioned. 

The mainstay of those without 
facts is ridicule. Obviously a genera- 
tion whose pious sensibilities were 
shocked by the Mormon claim of 
new revelation would not allow the 
Smith family their just due as hon- 
est individuals. So to take certain 
vindictive testimonials as historical 
fact is the height of irresponsibility. 
In 1833 one D. P. Hurlbut (his own 
spelling) forfeited his LDS mem- 
bership on the ground of unre- 
pentant adultery. 19 Turning from 
missionary for the new revelations 
to lecturer against them, he was 
employed by an anti-Mormon com- 
mittee in Ohio to gather material 
to "completely divest Joseph Smith 
of all claims to the character of an 
honest man," 20 a quest with obvious 
implications for the father and 
brothers of the Prophet. Whether 
Hurlbut himself had the integrity 
to record accurate statements may 
be doubted. Leading Mormons of 
the time insisted that his reputation 
was so notoriously tattered that his 
work had to be published by the 
more reputable but equally bitter 
E. D. Howe, who said in a later 
interview that "Hurlburt was al- 
ways an unreliable fellow. . . " 21 

Non-Mormon writers have ad- 
mitted the need to treat the Hurl- 
but-Howe affidavits with extreme 
caution, because they were "col- 
lected by one hostile individual 
whose style of composition stereo- 
types the language of numerous 
witnesses." 22 This is apparent in the 
main thrust of every Palmyra-Man- 
chester affidavit printed by Howe. 
Stock phrases allege that the Smith 
men were "lazy" and "indolent," 



having the "general employment" of 
"money digging." "They were a 
family that labored very little," so 
"their great object appeared to be to 
live without work"; consequently, 
it was "a mystery to their neigh- 
bors how they got their living." 23 

Such phrases are historically 
meaningless and merely brand the 
source as unreliable. From the 
memoirs of Lucy, Joseph, and 
William Smith, verified by later 
recollections of non-Mormon neigh- 
bors and even census reports at 
the time, it is known that the fam- 
ily was highly industrious. Their 
practical dependability is shown by 
merely listing their economic activi- 
ties in western New York from 1818 
to 1828, which included the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Purchasing a hundred acres 
of densely forested land on install- 
ments and clearing substantial por- 
tions with hand tools. 

(2) Building a moderately large 
log dwelling, followed by a frame 
house, farm buildings, and exten- 
sive fences. 

(3) Raising wheat as a main 
crop, and caring for 1,500 sugar- 
producing trees by gathering the 
sap and processing sugar and 
molasses. 

( 4 ) Extensive manufacturing 
(mainly by Joseph Smith, Sr. ) of 
coopering products, including bas- 
kets and birch brooms. 

(5) Supplementing income by 
regular hiring out as laborers and 
selling refreshments to crowds on 
holidays. 

This factual reconstruction of the 
real activities of the Smith men 
in Palmyra-Manchester is supple- 
mented by the recollections of 
neighbors who directly contradicted 
the Hurlbut- Ho we testimonials. 
One clearly in a position to know 
was Orlando Saunders, who was 
born two years before the Prophet 
and worked by the side of the 
Smith men on the nearby farm 
owned by his father, Enoch Saun- 



30 



Improvement Era 



ders, whose death in 1825 trans- 
ferred the property to Orlando. 
Fortunately, this man was later 
interviewed by both believers and 
unbelievers in the claims of the 
Smith family, and he told the same 
story. 

Reorganized LDS Interview 

"[T]hey have all worked for me 
many a day; they were very good 
people. Young Joe (as we called 
him then) . . . was a good worker; 
they all were. . . . [T]hey were poor 
people. . . ." 24 

Non-LDS Interview 

"Orlando Sanders . . . tells us that 
the .Smith family worked for his 
father and for himself. He gives 
them the credit of being good 
workers, but declares that they 
could save no money." 25 

As already mentioned, on several 
public occasions Joseph Smith, Sr., 
reiterated his witness of the plates 
of the Book of Mormon. His private 
testimony is also a matter of his- 
tory. Maliciously imprisoned for 
debt by resentful townsmen, he was 
offered freedom for renouncing the 
Book of Mormon but instead ac- 
cepted four days' starvation and 30 
days' imprisonment, a fair test of his 
sincerity. 2 " An interview with him 
about this time was reported from 
memory some forty years later. 
Though filled with inaccuracies ( as 
having Joseph instead of Martin 
Harris take the characters to New 
York), this 1870 recollection re- 
ported that the Prophet's father 
discussed the weight, dimensions, 
and appearance of the plates in 
detail. 27 The power of his personal 
conviction may be measured by the 
fact that Joseph Smith, Sr., per- 
suaded his parents and most of his 
brothers of the truth of the new 
revelation. The impact of his first 
visit was later related by George A. 
Smith: 

"Some time in August, 1830, my 



uncle Joseph Smith and Don Carlos 
Smith came some two hundred and 
fifty miles from where the Prophet 
was residing in Ontario County, 
New York, and they brought a 
Book of Mormon with them. I had 
never seen them before, and I felt 
astonished at their sayings." 28 

The unsophisticated honesty of 
Joseph Smith, Sr., and Samuel H. 
Smith is mirrored in the sensitive 
reliability of the Prophet's older 
brother Hyrum. Somewhat better 
educated than the rest of his 
brothers, and a man of marked 
executive ability, he gave distin- 
guished service from the organiza- 
tion of the Church until his 
martyrdom a decade and a half 
later. In the year when he became 
a Book of Mormon witness he was 
an independent farmer of 29 with 
a wife and two children. He was 
respected by his neighbors, for he 
served as school trustee in his lo- 



cality in 1828. -" Elected to this 
office in the local school district, he 
with two other trustees managed 
school affairs and funds, including 
hiring of teachers. 

The complete dedication of the 
Prophet's older brother to the re- 
stored Church separated him from 
further success in non-Mormon so- 
ciety. But the power of his leader- 
ship was felt in the Mormon 
community as a missionary, temple 
builder, migration captain, civic 
leader, patriarch, and official coun- 
selor to his Prophet-brother for 
about seven years, culminating in 
his appointment as assistant presi- 
dent in closest relationship to 
Joseph Smith in directing the 
Church. No early LDS leader is 
spoken of in warmer terms than 
Hyrum Smith. After traveling with 
him as a missionary, Orson Hyde 
described Hyrum as "a pleasant and 
an agreeable companion, a wise 



Hyrum Smith, painted in 1842 by Sutcliffe Maudsley 




August 1969 



31 



counselor, a father and a guide." 7,0 
The Prophet spontaneously picked 
two qualities that compelled love 
for his brother: "the integrity of a 
Job, and in short, the meek and 
quiet spirit of Jesus Christ. . . ." 31 
The numerous comments about this 
Book of Mormon witness generally 
allude to these dual qualities of 
honesty and kindness. The candid 
John Taylor found no flaw: "If 
ever there was an exemplary, hon- 
est, and virtuous man, an embodi- 
ment of all that is noble in the 
human form, Hyrum Smith was its 
representative." 32 

One this impressive cannot be 
ignored when he insists that he was 
not deceived in examining and lift- 
ing the Book of Mormon plates. And 
his descriptions follow the same 
pattern of consistency of all other 
witnesses. A brother-in-law of 
Hyrum Smith, the educated Joseph 
Fielding, talked personally to the 
witness's wife and reported in 
1841: "My sister bears testimony 
that her husband has seen and 
handled the plates. . . ." 33 A speech 
of 1844 was recalled by the capable 
Angus Cannon: "When I was but 
ten years of age, I heard the testi- 
mony of the Patriarch Hyrum 
Smith, one of the eight witnesses, 
to the divinity of the Book of Mor- 
mon and the appearance of the 
plates from which it was trans- 
lated. " 3A A public declaration of 
this witness in Salem, Massa- 
chusetts (perhaps 1836), was re- 



membered in 1843 and printed by a 
non-Mormon newspaper editor: 

"We have seen Hiram Smith, a 
brother of Jos., and heard him 
preach, and conversed with him 
about his religion, its origin and 
progress; and we heard him de- 
clare, in this city in public, that 
what is recorded about the plates, 
&c. &c. is God's solemn truth." 35 

As stated, the essence of the 
Smiths' witness to the Book of Mor- 
mon plates is deeds, not words. The 
constancy of faithful sacrifice for 
their testimonies places a force upon 
their original and reiterating state- 
ments that no amount of eloquence 
may produce. The supernatural 
power of the angel's visit to the 
three witnesses finds its physical 
foundation in the fact that eight 
ordinary men insisted all of their 
lives that they had carefully exam- 
ined and handled the ancient plates 
of the Book of Mormon. That 
practical reality is further rein- 
forced by the sacrifice of their lives 
by the Smiths who handled the 
plates. Worn out by middle-aged 
privation for the cause of the 
restoration, Joseph Smith, Sr., died 
of a severe lung condition a year 
after the Mormon expulsion from 
Missouri. 30 The strain of a danger- 
ous horseback ride in an attempt 
of Samuel to reach his brothers 
before their murder and the shock 
of their deaths brought fatal sick- 
ness to this last-surviving witness of 
the Smiths, who died a month 



later. 37 With his beloved Prophet- 
brother, Hyrum earlier faced the 
guns of a murderous mob in his 
last moments. And it is clear that 
his martyrdom meant exactly to 
Hyrum what the Latter-day Saints 
made of it. Interviews with the 
prison companions of Joseph and 
Hyrum were the basis of historical 
details that Hyrum read portions 
of the Book of Mormon the night 
before the martyrdom, and the next 
day he bore testimony of the coming 
forth of the Book of Mormon. 38 

There is a striking parallel be- 
tween the earlier Missouri imprison- 
ment and that of Illinois. In the 
former case, Hyrum Smith de- 
scribed why he was willing to make 
such a sacrifice. This statement 
without doubt is also Hyrum' s ex- 
planation of the meaning to him 
of his final sacrifice of life itself: 

"Having given my testimony to 
the world of the truth of the Book 
of Mormon, . . . and the establish- 
ment of the Kingdom of Heaven, 
in these last days; and having been 
brought into great afflictions and 
distresses for the same, I thought 
that it might be strengthening to 
my beloved brethren, to give them 
a short account of my sufferings, 
for the truth's sake, and the state of 
my mind and feelings, while under 
circumstances of the most trying 
and afflicting nature. . . . 

'[I] had been abused and thrust 
into a dungeon ... on account of my 
faith. . . . However, I thank God 



Mere Verification 
By Evalyn M. Sandberg 



Man's thrusts in space, though they engender awe, 
are nothing, held against ivhat Moses saw—- 
and we through him, because he was disposed 
to keep a record of ivhat God disclosed. 

And Abraham's holiness also provided 

a glimpse of all that God's great hands have guided, 



from Kolob, situated near his throne, 
to Kokob (star) and Olea (the moon). 

Oh, earlij seers, ive're so much in your debt! 
This pearl you left illumines darkness yet, 
and any facts that are or yet will be 
cam but confirm what God lets prophets see. 



32 



Improvement Era 



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34 



that I felt a determination to die, 
rather than deny the things which 
my eyes had seen, which my hands 
had handled, and which I had 
born testimony to, wherever my lot 
had been cast; and I can assure my 
beloved brethren that I was enabled 
to bear as strong a testimony, when 
nothing but death presented itself, 
as ever I did in my life." i!> O 

FOOTNOTES 

interview of Joseph Smith III with Emma 
Smith, cit. Saints' Herald, Vol. 26 (1879), pp. 
289-90. Quotations in this article are only 
modified in regard to spelling and punctuation. 

2 Sermon of William Smith, cit. Saints' Her- 
ald, Vol. 31 (1884), pp. 643-44. 

3 Lucy Smith, Biographical Sketches of Joseph 
Smith the Prophet (Liverpool, 1853), p. 141. 

*Dcscret News, May 26, 1858. 

"'Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 147. 

"Palmyra Presbyterian Session Records, Vol. 
2, Mar. 10, 1830. Cf. Richard Lloyd Anderson. 
"Circumstantial Confirmation of the First 'Vi- 
sion Through Reminiscences," BYU Studies, 
Vol. 9 (Spring, 1969), pp. 390-91. 

"Autobiography of Phineas Young, also cit. 
Dcseret News, Feb. 3, 1858. 

^Missionary record of Samuel Smith, LDS 
Church Historian's Office. 

"D&C 87:3 (1835 ed.), 75:13 (current ed.). 

"'Journal of Samuel H. Smith, Sept. 15, 1832. 

"Daniel Tyler, "Incidents of Experience," 
Scraps of Biographt/, Faith-Promoting Scries, 
Vol. 10 (Salt Lake City, 1883), p. 23. 

'-Autobiography of Orson Hyde; also cit. 
Dcseret News, May 5, 1858. 

'■'Patriarchal Rlessing Rook 1, cit. Ruby K. 
Smith, Mart) Bailcii (Salt Lake City, 1954), p. 
41. 

"Far West Record typescript, Oct. 25, 1831. 

'"■Patriarchal Rlessing Rook 1, p. 1. 



"\Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 162. 

17 "In Early Days," Juvenile Instructor, Vol. 
29 (1894), p. 552. 

ls Ms., History of the Church, Aug. 22, 1842; 
also cit. Joseph Smith, History of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-dai/ Saints ( Salt Lake 
City, 1909), Vol. 5, pp. 125-26 ( hereinafter 
abbreviated DHC). 

'"Cf. ibid., Vol. 1, pp. 352-55, and Times 
and Seasons, Vol. 6 (1845), pp. 784-85. 

•^Painesville [Ohio] Telegraph, Jan. 31, 1834. 

-'Ellen E. Dickinson, New Light on Mormon- 
ism (New York, 1885), p. 73. 

--Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-Over District 
(Ithaca, 1950, 1965), pp. 141-42. 

- 3 E. D. Howe, Mormonism Unvailed (Paines- 
ville, Ohio, 1834), pp. 262, 232, 251, 260, 249. 

^Interview with William H. Kellev, Saints 
Herald, Vol. 28 (1881), p. 165. 

-■"•Frederic G. Mather, "The Early Days of 
Mormonism," Lippincott's Magazine, Vol. 26 
(1880), p. 198. 

^Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 165. 

-"Interview of Fayette Lapham, The Histori- 
cal Magazine, Vol. 7 (2d ser., 1870), p. 305 ff. 

2s Discourse of George A. Smith, Aug. 2, 1857, 
Salt Lake City, Journal of Discourses (London, 
1858), Vol. 5, p. 103. 

2!) Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 128. 

:,0 Hyde, op. cit. 

•'"The text follows the Kirtland Manuscript 
History of Warren Parrish, also cit. DHC, Vol. 
2, p. 338. 

S *DHC, Vol. 7, p. 107. Cf. p. 54. 

■■"Letter of Joseph Fielding to Parley P. Pratt, 
June 20, 1841, Preston, England, cit. L.D.S. 
Millennial Star, Vol. 2 (1841), p. 52. 

34 Salt Lake Stake Historical Record, Jan. 25, 
1888. 

:c 'Salem [Mass.] Advertiser and Argus, April 
12, 1843; also cit. Times and Seasons, Vol. 1 
(1840), pp. 172ff. 

"'Funeral sermon of Robert B. Thompson, 
Sept. 15, 1840, Times and Seasons, Vol. 1 
(1840), pp. 172ff. 

■' !7 See the contemporary description evidently 
originating from Lucy Smith,- in the letter of 
H. Herringshaw to William Smith, Aug. 28, 
1844, Nauvoo, 111., cit. The Prophet, Sept. 21, 
1844. Cf. Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 278. 

™DHC, Vol. 6, pp. 600, 610. 

"'■'General letter of Hyrum Smith, December 
1839, Commerce, 111., Times and Seasons, Vol. 
1 (1839), pp. 20, 23. 



My World 
By Maxine Clayton Greenwood 



How limited my ivorld becomes 
When fog enfolds me close 
Within its isolating coldness. 
The paths ivell-known are lost to 

Trie. 
I cannot see to follow 
In the footsteps of another. 
I am my ivorld. 

How limited my heart becomes 
When fog of pride, indifference. 
And prejudice enshrouds my 
thoughts. 



The virtues of my brother, 

His hopes, the heights that he 

has gained, 
Are lost to me. 
I am my world. 

But I am a child of God; 

Within are depths of under- 
standing, 

Love, compassion — 

Untapped, untried, until 

My brother becomes 
my ivorld! 



Improvement Era 



Remember when summer was synonymous with sandpiles? 

Remember when the "school's out" shout meant long weeks hanging 
around the house, building tents in the yard, playing dolls in the orchard? 
It was Little League ball games and dancing lessons in the neighbor's base- 
ment . . . lemonade stands . , . berry picking . . . exploring the local hills. -*- 



Marion D. Hanks, Editor 
Elaine Cannon, Associate Editor 

August 1969 




You've done a lot to change all that. 

You've grown up. 

And now in the middle of summer you are caught up in the wonderful 
world of a mobile generation. 

You're on the move. You go — here, there, and across the seas. You 
ride and sail and sightsee. It may be just for fun. Or if you're one of the 
lucky ones, you work some, too. 




Era of Youth 



It's so busy you're breathless. 

But in the middle of summer, in the midst of it all, there ought to be time 
enough to think about where it is you really are going and how you are 
getting there and what you'll be like when you arrive at your goal. 

There are ways to set your sail . . . ways to have smoother sailing . . . 
ways to get into the current but not lost at sea. 

That's what this issue is all about. The Editors 



I 







O^©0 



n 





/ i — 



o 



A 



o 



Sailing is a great sport. But there are 

rules that make sailing safer and 

smoother. According to the Keith M. 

Engar family, they are the same kinds 

of rules that apply to living one's life. 

Set up the mast. 

Set up the rudder. 

Lower the center board for stability. 

Raise the sail. 

Steer in the right direction so the 

sail catches the wind for GO power. 

Duck the boom. 

Watch for rough water, stormy skies. 

Sail with care today so you can 

sail tomorrow, too ! 

37 









; . ..,,, ._. ■,,,:■, 









"In the beginning ..." 

Now that's a scriptural phrase to turn a -teen's imagination! 

When young people consider moon landings and space flights, they 
wonder how it would be. There is no swifter or surer transportation than 
the wings of imagination, and by this means five Latter-day Saint stu- 
dents had the jaunt of their lives wearing borrowed Air Force jump suits 
to an abandoned gravel pit. It was only play acting, but for these five who 
simulated a trip to the moon, it was real enough to stir up profound em- 
pathy with today's heroic astronauts. 

Somebody remembered reading Dr. Henry Eyring's statement in an 
issue of the Era of Youth: "Contemplating the awe-inspiring order in 
the universe, extending from the almost infinitely small to the infinitely 
large, one is overwhelmed with its grandeur and with the limitless wis- 
dom which conceived, created, and governs it all. Our understanding, 
great as it sometimes seems, can be nothing but wide-eyed wonder of the 
child when measured against omniscience. ..." 

And so we go on our fantasy trip to the moon, and we tell it as we 
think it would be. 




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August 1969 



41 



TheCr 



By Carroll S. Karch 





You've done it! Lucky you! You've reached that magical day you thought 
would never come when, a little nervously at first, you zipped through written 
quizzes and wheeled through road tests to win that freeway permit, that King 
of the Road passport, your first driver's license! Perhaps you even have your 
own wheels and four on the floor for making the scene. 

Not yet? Then it's a cinch some of your friends are driving, and you some- 
times ride the suicide seat. So take a closer look at this deadly dozen of life's 
highwaymen. No matter what your unlucky number is, ride with any one 
of these characters and your luck m ay be worse than seven smashed mir- 
rors, 13 black cats at midnight, and a month of Fridays the thirteenth! 



■HHMH 



PARKWG-LOT ZOOMER 

Instantly accelerates to 
90 mph unmindful of 
pedestrians and fellow 
motorists. Whips his GTO 
and out between rows of Vi 
parked cars, gleefully 
playing an Orwellian game 
of machine-versus-man. 





TRAFFIC-LIGHT 
SCRATCH ER . . . Brother 
in-blood to above species. 
Guns his 396 into a split 
precision take-off, fully 
aware that signals are set fo 
20 miles per hour. 






CENTER-LANE 

HUGGER . . . Drives in passing 

lane no matter how slow 

his speed. Thinks 

"Keep Right" signs are the 

warnings of some religious 

sect. Fancies himself 

another Parnelli Jones and 

feels the inside track has a 

tremendous advantage 

over the outside lane. 






SPEED-LIMIT SCORNER 

. . . Has not only a tiger in his tank 

but a kink in his think. 

Ignores all limits, posted or unposted 

Clings to the theory that 

some stupid person set them 

over-cautiously low and 

they are not meant for him, 

since (1) his reflexes are 

perfect, (2) he is an 

expert operating an efficien 

machine. Further maintains 

that all speedometers are 

set to slow down motorists. 




CUT-IN SHARPSTER . . . 

Knows nothing of and i 

couldn't care less about laws < 
of physics and facts of <\ 

life on the highivay. 
Expects fast-moving 327 Nova 
to stand still, while his 
283 passes and weaves into 
orbit in front of it. 




PASSING FIEND . . . 
Loves to play follow-the-leadt 
when he's in front. Can't 
stand to follow. Scorning 
safety, his 427 Corvette 
must pass everyone on the 
road, especially on hills 
or curves. And 
particularly if he'll reach 
his destination in the 
next two or three blocks. 



f»UJ 











ISO-SIGNAL SLOB 

Shrugs his way through t 
without signals. Never 
thinks farther ahead than 
his car hood. If he did, 
would egotistically expect 
other drivers to automatically 
anticipate his intentions, 
whether left turn, right, 
or instant dead stop. 






TURN-SIGNAL 
IGNORAMUS . . . Seemingly 
a frustrated Broadway 
actor with a love for bright 
lights. Tours freeways 
and byways blind and deaf 
to danger of blinking 
and clicking safety devices- 
accidentally flicked on or 
gone awry, so that other 
drivers cannot depend 
on the correctness of any 




automatic turn signals until 
move has been made. 




BLITHE SPIRIT . . . Can 

drink himself to death 

(even take others with 

him) on the small amount of 

alcohol required to 

stimulate self-confidence, 

reduce alertness, and 

slow reflexes. His normal 

good judgment disappears 

in drunkeness, which, 

studies reveal, is involved 

in about half of the 

nation's almost 50,000 yearly 

fatal accidents, with 

70 percent of all fatal injuries 

resulting from persons 

drinking the equivalent 

in alcohol of three or more 

martinis ! 




45 



The instructor was a 

patient in the hospital. 
He stood before the class 
in pajamas. 




\A^7 



G\purage, as 
I with all qualities, 
has many degrees. 
As I reflect upon the experiences of a year in 
Vietnam, I realize that I witnessed many of these 
variations. There was the physical courage of the 
battlefield; the quiet courage of mentally and 
physically exhausted men accepting additional 
missions; and the courage to meet the tedium of 
everyday duty. But above all others, there was 
the courage of conviction— that courage which 
enabled some to say "no" to the countless tempta- 
tions that were flaunted before them, and mean it. 
"It takes courage to be a Latter-day Saint," 
said George Q. Cannon. "A man that is a coward 

cannot be a Latter-day Saint. A woman who is 
not a heroine cannot be a Latter-day Saint. It 
requires just that kind of courage which is so 
rare in the world . . . the courage to maintain 
one's conviction." 

I saw this courage when two low-ranking GI's 
went to the hardened commanding officer of the 
stockade and asked to have one of the guards 
taken off the night watch. When the colonel 
asked why, the response was, "So we can teach 
him the gospel of Jesus Christ." The request was 
granted. 

I saw this courage late one night in an evacua- 
tion hospital. A faithful elder, severely burned 
when his helicopter crashed, took my hand, smiled, 





By Chaplain 
Joseph F. McConkie 



and said, "I'm in a great deal of pain. Would you 
administer to me?" 

I saw this courage in the humble tears of a 
career sergeant when he was called to be a group 
leader. He had volunteered to go to Vietnam, leav- 
ing a large family at home, so he could serve the 
Church. He took 50 copies of the Book of Mormon 
with him. 

I saw this courage in the hospital chapel at 
Vung Tau, where a small servicemen's group was 
holding priesthood meeting. The instructor was a 
patient in the hospital. He stood before the class 
in pajamas. After the meeting he confided, "I 
didn't think I would be able to stand. Now it hurts 
to sit." 
I thrilled at the many young men I met who not 
only had the courage to meet physical danger, but 
also had the courage to remain true to covenants 
they made with the Lord. After one of his trips 
to Vietnam, Elder Gordon B. Hinckley described 
our LDS servicemen in these words: "There are no 
better men in the world than these who, while 
wearing the uniform of the United States, are 
doing their duty as holders of the priesthood of 
God." To that I would only add, There are none 
more courageous. 

Captain Joseph F. McConkie spent a year in Viet- 
nam as an army chaplain. He is a former seminary 
instructor and missionary. 



46 



Era of Youth 



N 



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o 





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/ 



/ 



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y 



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/ 



/ 



/ 



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/ 



/ 



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I /' 



/ 



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y 



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KEEP 



RIGHT 



PARK! 



y 



\ 



\ 



V 



V 



Entering Mortal 
Probation 

TWOWAY 
TRAFFIC 

AHEAD 



/ 




48 



\ 



Era of Youth 



Floral 
Fiesta 




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2511 S.W. Temple • Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 



m 



On 
Reaching 





Moon 



By William T. Sykes 

Editorial Associate 



■^' )M»m0^MM : v : mim 




50 



• The long, needle-shaped object 
streaked upward, spaceward. As 
I watched it lift its human cargo 
toward the stars, there came into 
my mind an old, half-forgotten 
story, one that had seemed buried 
in fantasy — an unreal tale, yet 
one that claims a place in the 
genesis of man's history on the 
earth. 

"And they said, Go to, let us 
build us a city and a tower, whose 
top may reach into heaven; and 
let us make us a name, lest we be 
scattered abroad upon the face 
of the whole earth. 

"And the Lord came down to 
see the city and the tower, which 
the children of men builded. 

"And the Lord said, Behold, 
the people is one, and they have 



all one language; and this they 
begin to do: and now nothing will 
he restrained from them, which 
they have imagined to do" (Gen. 
11:4-6. Italics added.) 

Man is a restless, unsatisfied, 
impatient creature, a mental 
giant. Half-fearfully we read of 
him: ". . . and now nothing will 
be restrained from them, which 
they have imagined to do." We 
cannot believe that man's imagi- 
nation will end on the surface of 
the moon, or Mars, or any other 
member of the family of our sun. 
And if not on one of these, where? 

To the Latter-day Saint, whose 
teachings tell him that some- 
where out there, somewhere near 
the great star Kolob, God has his 
throne, the creative possibilities 



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August 1969 51 




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Up, Up and Away 


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Make a Joyful Sound 


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L 



52 



in man's imagination bear added 
testimony that he is indeed a son 
of God, and that as such appar- 
ently nothing will be restrained 
from him. As a son of that Fa- 
ther, man thrills with the knowl- 
edge that space is filled with 
God's kingdoms, and that if he is 
faithful, all that his Father has 
will be shared with him. 

Abraham saw these kingdoms 
and said: "And I saw the stars, 
that they were very great, and 
that one of them was nearest un- 
to the throne of God; and there 
were many great ones which were 
near unto it; 

"And the Lord said unto me: 
These are the governing ones; and 
the name of the great one is Ko- 
lob, because it is near unto me, 
for I am the Lord thy God: I 
have set this one to govern all 
those which belong to the same 
order as that upon which thou 
standest." (Abr. 3:2-3.) 

In simple terms, Abraham saw 
that this earth is involved in a 
continuing, connecting chain of 
governing stars reaching out 
through space until the chain 
reaches the throne of God, near 
Kolob, the great governing body, 
which is set to govern all the 
stars and planets that belong to 
the order in which this earth is 
placed. Even though God, who 
upholds all these things by his 
power, is an actual personage, 
occupying only one place at a 
time, and has a place of adminis- 
trative power from which all 
these things are governed, yet he 
is so closely related to men on 
this earth that he shows himself 
to them and speaks face to face 
with them as one man speaks to 
another. 

The Lord said: "Now, if there 
be two things, one above the 
other, and the moon be above the 
earth, then it may be that a 
planet or a star may exist above 
it; and there is nothing that the 



Lord thy God shall take in his 
heart to do but what he will do 
it." (Abr. 3:17.) 

Since man is the son of God, it 
may be said of him also that 
there is nothing he "shall take in 
his heart to do but what he will do 
it." To those who might suggest 
that man cannot reach the pin- 
nacle of his creativeness, that this 
life with its supposed limitations 
offers only the closed door of 
death, a photograph of a giant 
missile streaking its way into the 
heavens can be a reminder that 
life is eternal, that man's progress 
can be as limitless as space. 

When God said that "he that 
hath eternal life is rich" (D&C 
6:7), he said something that all 
men may rationally believe and 
more fully understand as space 
begins to yield its secrets to those 
who explore its dimensions. And 
if mortal man can accomplish 
this, what then of his future when 
he joins the immortals and comes 
to learn from the Great Explorer 
all the secrets of the universe? 

We are not among those who 
would question present advan- 
tages to be gained by seeking out 
the secrets above and beyond the 
earth. Neither need we concern 
ourselves with future colonization 
of the moon or other bodies that 
might be included in our total 
space program. If the peopling of 
other celestial bodies is not given 
to man in mortality, then surely 
we can leave the control of it in 
God's hands. 

What does seem of importance 
to us is that we conduct our lives 
after the pattern set by our Fa- 
ther in heaven, so these great 
accomplishments in space may be 
ours to continue throughout all 
eternity. Then it may truly be 
said of us, when we begin to build 
our city and our tower, ". . . now 
nothing will be restrained from 
them, which they have imagined 
to do." O 



Improvement Era 



adBu*— 




Todays Family 



By sharing expenses with others, each 
person can usually live in a much 
nicer home for less money, 



By Eleanor Knowles 




When Family Means Roommates 



\J 



• In today's mobile society, when many young people 
leave home in their late teens or early twenties to 
pursue an education or career, the word family often 
comes to include roommates— other young people who 
have similar interests and who pool their resources 
to share a room, apartment, or home. 

For the person who is just leaving home and looking 
forward to this sharing experience, it's a time of eager 
anticipation. Hopefully, having and being a roommate 
will be enjoyable. For some, though, it is also a time 
of trial, error, and sometimes disappointment. Finding 
the right combination of roommates— those who will be 
compatible and pleasant to live with— isn't always easy, 
and it takes a great deal of patience, understanding, 
and effort on the part of each person who shares liv- 
ing quarters with others. 

Let's face it— not everyone has the same ways of 



doing things, the same interests, the same background. 
While you usually find differences of habits and inter- 
ests among persons who are in the immediate family, 
such differences may be much more exaggerated and 
pronounced among persons who come from different 
homes and environments. 

Roommates come in all sizes, shapes, and types. One 
may like to go to bed early; another is a "night per- 
son." One likes rock music; another prefers the classics. 
One is gregarious and likes to have many people 
around; another is a loner and enjoys solitude. One 
person is a meticulous housekeeper; another doesn't 
notice dust on the floor or dirty dishes in the sink. 

Why, then, do people ever join forces to share apart- 
ments? Actually, the advantages almost always out- 
weigh the disadvantages, especially for the young adult 
who has a limited budget and is not yet established in 



August 1969 



53 



the community. By sharing expenses with others, this 
person can usually live in a much nicer home for less 
money, and there are also the advantages of instant 
friendships and companionship. If, in addition to hav- 
ing quarters in common, the roommates are also active 
in church, are near the same age, enjoy the same or 
similar types of recreation and entertainment, and 
have similar standards and ideals, the all-important 
CQ (compatibility quotient) is high and chances for 
a happy home life are greatly enhanced. 

For girls especially, learning to manage a home or 
apartment is an invaluable training ground for mar- 
riage. One writer, who claims that "roommates make 
the best wives," has written: "When I . . . graduated 
from high school, I couldn't even light a gas stove. 
After having lived with 15 roommates, from one to five 
at a time, during five years of college and two of a 
career, I can now, if necessary, bake a loaf of bread, 
change a fuse, bait a mouse trap (and dispose of it 
when it's served its purpose), cook 43 different dishes 
starring hamburger, and look on almost all quirks of 
behavior with equanimity. I'm also a whiz at provid- 
ing three meals a day at $5 per week per person, and if, 
after marriage, I discover that my husband has no 
more trying habits than snoring, strewing his clothes 
on the floor, and eating crackers in bed, I'll consider 
him a miracle." (Joan Paulson, Ladies Home Journal, 
March 1967, p. 171. ) 

What sort of situation will the person who is new 
to "roommating" find? There are probably as many 
different kinds of roommate situations as there are 
people. No two combinations of individuals are alike, 
and there are innumerable factors, personalities, back- 
grounds, and habits that must be reckoned with. 

Often roommates share the cooking, but sometimes 
their schedules, habits, and preferences dictate a policy 
of "to each his own," with a kitchen drawer or shelf 
and refrigerator space assigned to each person for his 
own supplies. Some roommate groups shop together, 
cook together, and share household responsibilities; 
others assign duties that are done individually. Some 
enjoy activities together both inside and outside the 
home; others have only their sleeping quarters in com- 
mon and pursue other interests and activities indi- 
vidually. 

But no matter what the situation, a few basic guide- 
lines should be considered to help make roommate liv- 
ing a more pleasant experience for all: 

1. Decide on a division of responsibility for house- 
hold chores, and stick to it. Each person should assume 
responsibility for keeping the home clean and should 
not have to be nagged or reminded to do his share of 
the housework. A duty chart with rotation of specific 
responsibilities usually works well. 



2. Expect to pay your share of the expenses (rent, 
telephone, lights, food, etc. ) . It helps if one person 
handles the finances and sees that the rent and utilities 
are paid on time. Food expenses may be handled by 
the person assigned to do the cooking for the week or 
by the apartment "treasurer." 

3. Respect each other's property. Borrowing is fine 
only if both parties agree to it. 

4. Respect each other's right to privacy. There are 
times when virtually everyone needs to be alone, and 
others shouldn't take offense (unless, of course, one 
person's need for privacy and solitude is constant and 
he or she continually shuts out the others in the group; 
in such a case, the person involved may need counsel- 
ing or may be better off living alone ) . 

5. Don't bottle up grievances and grudges. Talk 
them out with the person involved and try to reach 
an understanding as soon as possible. 

6. Keep your own possessions put away and your 
own room and living space neat. If each person does 
this, no one need feel embarrassed or chagrined if 
unexpected company drops in. It also makes for a 
more comfortable home for all. 

7. Select roommates who are close to the same age, 
if possible, and who have compatible or similar 
interests. 

8. Make a conscious effort to try to get along with 
the other roommates. As one girl has said, "It's more 
important to try to get along than to worry about 
little inconveniences or annoyances of those we live 
with." 

Preparing and eating meals together is a pleasant 
experience for most roommates. Those who have 
never done much cooking before will find roommates 
generally tolerant of their efforts and often helpful 
in teaching them how to cook. Those who are more 
proficient at preparing meals often enjoy trying out 
new and exotic dishes. (I can remember vividly one 
family home evening when each roommate and guest 
prepared a speciality for a pot-luck supper, and we 
ended up with enchiladas, a noodle casserole, garlic 
bread, a German torte with sour-cherry filling— and 
avocado ice cream! ) 

"Unlike new husbands, roommates have no qualms 
about judging a dish to be a disaster," one girl has 
observed. 

Young adults today are generally quite involved in 
outside activities, taking classes, doing community 
and club work, fulfilling church assignments, and 
pursuing cultural interests. Therefore, it's nice to have 
a few one-dish-meal specialties that can be prepared 
and then kept warm on the burner or in the oven. The 
following recipes have been found by two career girls 
to be delicious, economical, and easy to prepare. 



54 



Improvement Era 



Shrimp and Noodle Casserole 

(Serves 5-6) 

2 cups small shrimp, cooked and 

cleaned (or 2 cans shrimp) 
8 ounces narrow noodles, cooked 
1 can condensed Cheddar cheese soup 

soup can milk 

cups whole-kernel corn, cooked 

(canned or frozen) 

cup sliced mushrooms, or 6-ounce 

can 

tablespoons buttered crumbs 



V3 



% 



Combine all ingredients except buttered 
crumbs and pour into a greased 
medium-size casserole. Sprinkle with 
crumbs and bake about 30 minutes in 
a 400° F. oven, or until browned and 
bubbly. 

Ham Casserole With Vegetables 

(Serves 5-6) 

1% cups cooked ham, diced 
1 cup cooked green beans 
1 can condensed cream of mush- 
room soup 
V 2 cup milk 

1 cup whole-kernel corn 
1 cup cooked carrot slices 
1 cup cooked little white onions 
y 2 cup buttered crumbs 

Combine all ingredients except crumbs 
in a medium casserole. Top with 
crumbs and bake 20-25 minutes in a 
375° F. oven, or until golden and 
bubbly. 

Quickie Corn Chowder 

V4 cup butter or margarine 
1 large onion, diced 

1 can (1 pound) cream-style corn 

2 cans (1 pound each) whole pota- 
toes, diced 

1 can (7 ounces) tuna fish, flaked 

3 cups milk 

1 teaspoon seasoned salt 
Y 2 teaspoon salt 
% teaspoon pepper 

In large saucepan, melt butter. Add 
diced onion and cook until tender, but 
not brown. Add corn, diced potatoes, 
tuna, milk, and seasonings. Heat thor- 
oughly, but do not boil. Makes about 2 
quarts chowder. 

Sweet and Sour Meatballs 
(Serves 6-8) 

1 pound ground beef 

1 egg 

1 tablespoon cornstarch 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons onion, chopped 
pepper 

1 tablespoon oil 

1 cup pineapple juice 

3 tablespoons cornstarch 
1 tablespoon soy sauce 

3 tablespoons vinegar 
6 tablespoons water 
y 2 cup brown sugar — *- 



August 1969 



. «':■:.'' 



/ 



\ 



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convenient 
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spout . . . 

On New 2 lb. fine granulated, 
1 lb. fine granulated 1 lb. 
superfine granulated. 
Sweeten your life with sweet 
treats made with U and I 
Sugar . . . home grown/home 
produced in "Sugarplum 
Land." 



55 



WEDDING INVITATIONS & ACCESSORIES 



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Printed on finest plain or paneled 
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$7.75 



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NEW! Art rendering of all LD.S. 
Temples for your wedding stationery 

Over 60 styles from which to choose 
including all the elegant vellums 
and finest parchments in silver 
gray and beautiful pastels. Also 
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notes, at home cards, napkins, 
photo albums, L.D.S. wedding 
books, and many accessories. 



ORDER WITH COMPLETE CONFIDENCE. SATISFACTION 
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M E R C U R Y 

PUBLISHING CO. 

146 EAST SIXTH SOUTH STREET 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84111 



Name 



Address, 
City 



State 



Zip 



Look ahead to school wardrobes 
and fall home decorating 

Shop our newly-arriving collections for family fash- 
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terms arranged. Delivery in our wide delivery area. 
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The U. S. Post Office 
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56 



4 slices pineapple, cut into pieces 
2 green peppers, cut into strips 

Mix ground beef, egg, 1 tablespoon 
cornstarch, salt, onion, and few grains 
of pepper. Form into 18 balls or more. 
Brown them in a small amount of oil; 
drain. To 1 tablespoon oil add pine- 
apple juice and cook over low heat a 
few minutes. Add mixture of 3 table- 
spoons cornstarch, soy sauce, vinegar, 
water, and sugar. Cook until juice 
thickens, stirring constantly. Add meat 
balls, pineapple, and green pepper 
strips. Heat thoroughly. Serve hot. 

Chicken Divan 

(Serves 6) 

Cooked sliced chicken (enough to serve 
6) 

2 packages frozen broccoli, cooked 
Y 2 cup sliced toasted Brazil nuts or 

almonds 
6 tablespoons butter or margarine 
6 tablespoons flour 

3 cups milk 
iy 2 teaspoons salt 

3 egg yolks, slightly beaten 
x /4 teaspoon Tabasco sauce 

4 tablespoons grated Parmesan 
cheese 

Make a cream sauce of the butter, 
flour, and milk, and season to taste. 
Stir until it is smooth and thick. Add a 
little to the egg yolks and blend back 
into the cream sauce. Cook a minute or 
two more, but do not let it boil. Stir 
in the Tabasco and cheese. Arrange 
the cooked broccoli on the bottom of a 
shallow casserole. Pour a thin layer of 
the cream sauce on the broccoli and 
cover with half of the nuts. Arrange the 
chicken slices on top in a thick layer, 
overlapping them. Cover with the rest 
of the sauce. Bake the casserole 20 
minutes in a 375° F. oven. Sprinkle 
with the remaining nuts and bake 5 
minutes longer. Put under the broiler 
for a moment to brown. (Note: Turkey 
may be used in place of chicken.) q 



The Beginning 

By Joseph Dewey 

A thousand-mile journey begins 
Not with the first step, 
But ivith the thought, the intent. 
Before greatness is wrought, 
There proceeds a great thought. 
The first step is inclined 
By a journey out of sight — 
Ten thousand miles of light 
In the mind. 



Improvement Era 



7, 



7. 



T u. 



7, 



toil at! 



It's the greatest 
shopping and travel card 
ever invented- because it 
can be used for so many 
things at so many places. 



Saves me time every 
month 'cause I have only 
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of many. 



/ iike it because it make9 
record keeping go easy. 
And if heipQ me 
control my budget too. 



On/y once have / 

used the cash advance 

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ifien for a very worthwhile 

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FIRST SECURITY 

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responsible person who has the ability 
to handle income wisely. Applications 
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or at BankAmericard participating 
merchants. Fill in and mail. It's self 
addressed and postage is paid. 

'^Servicemarks awnect ana* licensed by ^nl^rtwrica. Service CorpdratJon 



August 1969 



57 



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58 



The Church 
Moves On 



May 1969 



U Upon a wooded hilltop overlook- 
ing Madrid, Elder Marion G. Romney 
dedicated Spain for the preaching of 
the gospel. The Church was legally 
recognized by Spain on October 22, 
1968. 



Susquehanna Stake (New York- 
Pennsylvania) was organized by Elder 
Mark E. Petersen of the Council of 
the Twelve from parts of Cumorah 
Stake and the Cumorah Mission. Sus- 
tained were President Harold R. Cape- 
ner and counselors Joseph M. Ballantyne 
and Horace H. Christensen. This is the 
483rd stake now functioning in the 
Church. 

EU The First Presidency announced 
the assignments of recently appointed 
mission presidents: 

Alaska Canadian: Raymond C. Bowers. 

Andes South: Norman K. Roberts. 

Argentine: Verden E. Bettilyon. 

Arizona (new mission): Clark M. Wood 

Austrian: Charles W. Broberg. 

Brazilian: Sherman H. Hibbert. 

British: Wilford Dean Belnap. 

California: John K. Edmunds. 

California East (new mission): William 
L. Nicholls. 

California North (new mission): Ira 
A. Terry. 

California South: Marion L. Coleman. 

Central British: Clifton I. Johnson. 

Central German: Walter H. Kindt. 

Cumorah: Robert L. Stephenson. 

Danish: Paul L. Pehrson. 

East Central States: William H. Day. 

Franco-Belgian: Thomas H. Brown. 

Hawaii: Kenneth N. Gardner. 

New Zealand South: Eugene Ludwig. 

North Argentine: Henry C. Gorton. 

Northwestern States: Grant A. Stucki. 



Norwegian: Ray C. Johnson. 

Scottish: Francis N. Grigg. 

South Central States (new mission): 

Albert B. Crandall. 
Swedish: Herbert B. Spencer. 
Tongan: James P. Christensen. 
Western States: Phillip G. Redd. 



June 1969 

U Arkansas Stake, 484th in the 
Church, was organized by Elder Harold 
B. Lee of the Council of the Twelve 
and Elder James A. Cullimore, Assistant 
to the Twelve, from the Arkansas Dis- 
trict of the Gulf States Mission. Presi- 
dent Dean C. Andrew and counselors 
Thomas L. Brown and Jesse L. Miller 
were sustained. 

New stake presidencies: President 
Blaine W. Hancey and counselors Wil- 
liam A. Sorenson and Rex K. Thompson, 
Cache (Utah) Stake; President Vyrl D. 
Goff and counselors Dee R. Witt and 
Floyd D. Glissmeyer, Redding (Cali- 
fornia) Stake. 

||J Additional mission president and 
his assignment announced by the First 
Presidency: 

Finnish: Orval L. Nelson. 

It was announced that 37,398 stu- 
dents in the United States and 13 other 
countries were graduated from seminary 
this year. In addition, 1,850 college stu- 
dents were graduated from institutes 
of religion. 

An automobile accident in the rain 
near Innsbruck claimed the lives of 
two missionaries serving in the Austrian 
Mission, Elders Vaughn A. Mason, 21, 
of Rexburg, Idaho, and Mitchell Daniel 
Wilson, 20, of Denver, Colorado. 

EH Hudson River Stake, 485th now 
functioning, was organized by Elder 
Mark E. Petersen of the Council of the 
Twelve from the Albany District, "Cu- 
morah Mission, with Thomas L. Hicken 
as stake president and J. Reid Burnett, 
Sr., and Sterling C. Burton, counselors. 
New stake presidency: President 
Kenneth P. Anderson succeeds Presi- 



Improvement Era 



dent J. Richard Evanson, deceased, in 
the Taber (Alberta, Canada) Stake. 
Counselors are Garth M. Harris and 
Burns W. Wood. 



jjj Additional mission presidents and 
assignments were announced by the 
First Presidency: 

Southern Australian: Lester F. Hew- 
lett, Jr. 

Florida: J. Murray Rawson. 

North Central States: Carl M. King. 

French Polynesian: Ralph J. Rich- 
ards. 



Pensacola (Florida) Stake was or- 
ganized by Elder Mark E. Petersen of 
the Council of the Twelve from portions 
of the Florida Mission. President Stan- 
ford L. Stapleton and counselors Harold 
L. Miller, Sr., and Nelson L. Roane 
were sustained. 

Sacramento (California) South Stake 
was organized from portions of Sacra- 
mento Stake by Elder Ezra Taft Benson 
of the Council of the Twelve. President 
John H. Huber and counselors Lee W. 
Carter and Connell B. Roberts were 
sustained. 

Pago Pago (American Samoa) Stake 
was organized by Elder Howard W. 
Hunter of the Council of the Twelve 
and Elder Henry D. Taylor, Assistant to 
the Twelve, from portions of the 
Samoan Mission. President Patrick 
Peters and counselors Opapo Afualo 
and John W. Welton were sustained. 

The three stakes organized today 
bring the number of functioning stakes 
to 488. 

New stake presidencies: President 
Russell G. Williams and counselors 
Lloyd L. Brown and Dietrich K. Gehm- 
lich, Grant (Salt Lake City) Stake; 
President Homer Nixon Stephenson 
and counselors Albert L. Fisher, Jr., 
and Stanley R. Dewsnup, Sacramento 
(California) Stake. 



Additional mission presidents and 
their assignments were announced by 
the First Presidency: 

Northern States: Wilford K. Kimball, 
Southeast Mexican: Samuel Boren. 



August 1969 




Of perpetual interest 
to Church members and 
their friends 

Temples 

and the 
Latter-day Saints 



Now available in 
a special Era-sized 
booklet 



per 
50^ copy 

40( per copy 

for 25 or 
more 











Selections from the finest articles and pictures appearing in the Era over 

a number of years, including: 

• Full-page, full-color pictures of all 
existing temples 

• Numerous four-color pictures of 
temple interiors 

• The Purpose of Temples — President 
David 0. McKay 

• The LDS Concept of Marriage — 
President Hugh B. Brown 

• Ancient Temples and Their Functions 
— Sidney B. Sperry 

• Other pertinent articles on distinctive 
features of "Mormonism" 



Order from 



Ideal for home, 

classroom, and 

missionary 

use 




79 South State Street 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 



59 




vention 
ofHeart 

Disease 



• The blood of man, which delivers oxygen and 
nutrition to billions of body cells, requires an unfailing 
propulsion source to drive it through the many miles of 
blood channels on its never-ceasing circulatory route. 
This driving force, the human heart, is a complex dual 
circuit pump with unidirectional valves that is respon- 
sive on an instant's notice to every body need. 

In addition to this rapidly responsive capability, 
durability of an unbelievable degree is required for 
the span of a lifetime. Yet the healthy heart has these 
qualities in surplus amounts. The pump action is pro- 
vided by muscles that contract forcefully and 
rythmically under the influence of self-generated 
electrical impulses. Provide these heart muscles with 
sufficient oxygen and proper nutrients via a good 
blood supply, and, in the absence of chance disease or 
injury, they will outlast average life span today. 

The blood flow to heart muscles is through coronary 
arteries originating directly from the large aorta. These 
are the first arteries supplied by freshly oxygenated 
and nutritionally renewed blood. If the heart's blood 
supply is diminished slightly, it cannot respond maxi- 
mally to stress. If it is diminished more, severe dis- 
ability and painful angina pectoris or failure may- 
ensue. 

If it is cut off completely, the heart muscles in 
the deprived area will die; and if the whole person 
survives, they are replaced by functionless scar tissue. 

An abrupt closure of a coronary artery produces 
death in approximately thirty percent of those so 



afflicted before they can reach a hospital. Thirty to 
forty percent of those reaching a hospital alive will 
subsequently succumb, with an overall mortality rate 
of approximately fifty percent. This abrupt cessation 
of blood supply to a portion of the heart muscle is 
called a heart attack ( coronary occlusion or myocardial 
infarction). Almost all cases of this nature are caused 
by hardening ( atherosclerosis ) of the coronary arteries, 
which results in a clot or atherosclerotic plaque 
plugging the vessel. This condition is such a frequent 
occurrence that it is the leading cause of death in the 
United States, with half a million Americans dying 
annually from its onslaught. 

Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, occurs 
in many areas of the body, but it is in the vital areas of 
the body that in many cases the disastrous effects of 
this disease are first manifest (heart-coronary occlu- 
sion and brain-stroke ) . Atherosclerosis is an abnormal 
deposition of fatty substances in the normally smooth, 
strong inner wall of arteries, with fats (lipids), lipo- 
proteins, and cholesterol being the chief chemicals 
present. 

The very high death rate for those with this disease 
continues unchecked despite maximum research efforts 



Dr. Ray G. Cowley, a member of the Denver (Colorado) 
18th Ward, is executive secretary of the Western States 
Mission presidency, chief of the pulmonary disease 
service at Fitzsimmons General Hospital in Denver, and 
a respected medical lecturer and author of numerous 
scientific papers on medical topics. 



60 



Improvement Era 



and much money expended to improve the treatment 
results. This process can be prevented, however, and 
the emphasis should logically be in this direction. 

The process of atherosclerosis was once thought to be 
an inevitable and irreversible result of aging, but it is 
neither of these, and the facts regarding this have only 
recently been established. 

This type of heart disease is primarily seen in males, 
with increasing numbers of cases being seen in younger 
age groups (30's, 40's, and 50\s) during the past two 
decades. Although females arc apparently protected 
from heart attacks before menopause by special 
hormones, afterward they become as vulnerable as the 
male, with an even higher mortality rate. 

The story of the search for the cause of this medical 
problem is a fascinating one, and many answers are 
now known. Highlighting the facts is this report from 
The Mayo Clinic Yroceecling: "I would like now to dis- 
pose of two ideas that have fairly wide acceptance 
among physicians. One is that atherosclerosis is an 
invariable accompaniment of the aging vascular sys- 
tem. The other is that the disease is irreversible. 
Neither is true. Observations in man as well as experi- 
mental animals over many years have shown that 
atherosclerosis can in fact be reversed. The mecha- 
nisms by which such reversal can be effected have been 
largely of a dietary nature. Our views on athero- 
sclerosis based on a painstaking, sometimes halting, and 
often confusing marshalling of data leave no room for 
doubt that this disease need not be a necessary part of 
the aging vascular system. Atherosclerosis is prevent- 
able and reversible." (Vol. 40, November 1965, p. 815.) 

Why is this epidemic of heart disease occurring 
in the United States and not at all or to a lesser degree 
in other countries of the world? The United States 
has become a dangerous country to live in from this 
standpoint. A recent worldwide survey of mortality 
statistics revealed that the U.S. mortality rate was 
exceeded by only one other country. The entire reason 
for this high mortality rate was coronary heart disease. 
One might assume that discovery of control measures 
for so widespread a disease would be simple, but the 
uninspired mind of man most often learns truth 
through the pathway of trial and error, and this is a 
tedious, costly, and difficult process. 

The gathering of scientific data began in a very 
preliminary manner in 1908 when a Russian scientist, 
Ignatovski, noted a much higher incidence of coronary 
atherosclerosis among the wealthy class in Russia than 
was found in the peasant population. He studied this 
situation thoroughly and reported that the high inci- 
dence of heart disease among the rich was related to a 
high dietary intake of meat and butterfat. He was 
wise before the times would allow and was silenced 



* 

Richard L Evans 

The Spoken Word 



"My departed hours- 
where are they?" 



Ever and always startling is the swiftness with 
which time goes, the speed at which life passes. 
"My departed hours — where are they?" 1 the 
poet asked in anguish. The weeks seem hours only. 
And when we look at what we do with a day, the 
lost time, the in-between times, we wonder at the 
time we waste away — sometimes looking at or 
listening to what isn't worth the time it takes; some- 
times reading what isn't worth or worthy of the 
paper it is printed on; sometimes thoughts that 
never should have been thought or written. "What 
is time?" asked Longfellow. "The shadow on the 
dial, the striking of the clock, the running of the 
sand . . .? These are but . . . outward signs. . . . Time 
is the Life of the soul." 2 Time, life, choice: — the 
very essence of all we are or shall be — ever. And 
mayhap we ought to make our own time-and-motion 
studies in our own personal pursuits, and note the 
difference between going forward and merely going 
through motions; and not so much needlessly do 
the same things over and over again, such as some- 
times shifting and reshuffling the same pile of papers 
and putting them in different places, without really 
clearing up the clutter; sometimes doing essentially 
the same with problems — worrying and reworrying 
about the same ones without doing what can or 
should be done; sometimes wrestling with the 
same habits, the same appetites, the same troubled 
conscience, without really repenting or improving 
or really learning our lessons. With time moving, 
chimes sounding, life passing, just going through 
motions is not enough. There are some things we 
ought to be doing now, or ought already to have 
done. Oh, may we have the wisdom to use the 
little time, the precious life, to do what should be 
done, to learn what should be learned, to live as 
we should live: repenting, improving, performing, 
with a blessed sense of peace and purpose — not 
just rearranging our problems — not just rushing 
around. 



•Edward Young, Night Thoughts. 
2 Longfellow. Hyperion, Bk ii, ch, 6. 



*"The Spoken Word" from Tem- 
ple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting 
System |une 15, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



August 1969 



61 



An imnOrtant rPDOrt fl bout they utilized figures for saturated fat available rather 

than estimating the amount ingested (which may vary 

, widely, depending on cooking habits). Correction for 

me6t--anu Wnat IT Can (JO these two factors showed that death rates from coro- 
nary occlusion were more closely related to increased 

tr\ thp hum^n hCrirt intake of animal protein in the diet than to saturated- 
fat content. ( Animal protein refers to the lean portion 
of animal meat products. ) 

There are now large numbers of investigations com- 
pleted and published that attest to this revised con- 
by disbelieving colleagues who could not accept his elusion. It is essential to consider too much meat as 
finding that the "best foods" in the diet were respon- a whole, not just the fat portion, as the most important 
sible for such a devastating disease process. This cause of coronary atherosclerosis in the U.S. Other 
original and correct thought was subdued by the forces factors do enter into the picture, such as diabetes, 
of ignorance, and for three decades little work was high blood pressure, heredity, and smoking, but diet 
done along this line until the pressing urgency of the is by far the most important one. There is now wide- 
burgeoning number of cases in the USA demanded spread medical agreement that proper dietary control 
attention. would very significantly and rapidly reduce this serious 

An American medical missionary working in China in problem, 
the 1930's and 40's was struck by the lack of this disease In the journal Nutritional Reviews ( Vol. 18, Novem- 
there as compared to the United States and again ber 1960 ) is a study of coronary heart disease in African 
sought the answer. His conclusion was that dietary Bantu natives compared to Englishmen living in the 
differences played the primary role, with too much same area. The English males have 26 times as much 
saturated fat in the American diet possibly being the coronary disease as the Bantus, and their diet is in- 
major cause. (Saturated fats are usually solid at room criminated as the cause. The English ingest large 
temperature and originate primarily in animals and amounts of meat of animal origin and the Bantus eat 
fowls. The lean meat is surrounded and penetrated by very little meat, subsisting on grain, vegetables, and 
this fat, and complete separation, of lean and fat in fruit for the most part. 

the kitchen is literally impossible. ) From Finland comes further data in the Acta Medica 
The World Health Organization (WHO) then con- Scandinavica (Vol. 139 [1961], page 364). In World 
ducted a multi-country survey of this problem spanning War II, the population of Finland was on strict food 
10 years of time. The survey included such countries rationing. During this time, the previously significant 
as Italy and Japan, where the incidence of this disease incidence of coronary heart disease dropped almost 
is twentyfold less than in the United States. (When to zero. When the rationing stopped and meat and 
inhabitants of these two countries, and others, migrate butterfat again became plentiful, the incidence of 
to the U.S. and adopt their new country's eating coronary occlusions increased 584 percent in six years, 
habits, their heart attack rate rises within ten years.) A most revealing (and alarming) study emerged 
The conclusion derived from this study was that there from the Korean War. Special studies of the coronary 
is a "probable" relationship between a high saturated arteries to determine the degree of atherosclerosis 
fat intake and a high incidence of coronary athero- present were carried out in 500 American males and 
sclerosis. (Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 4, October 500 males killed in action. The average age of both 
1956, p. 364.) The results of this study were widely groups was 22. Virtually none of the Koreans had 
accepted and the "probable" relationship became coronary artery abnormalities, whereas 90 percent of 
"definite" in the minds of many. the American males had atherosclerosis of their 
An enlightening sequel to the WHO study appeared coronary arteries. In half of these Americans the 
two years later and demonstrates the difficulty of atherosclerosis was severe enough to be considered 
correctly interpreting masses of data. Two statisticians medically significant. (Journal of the American Medical 
from the Rockefeller Research Institute could not Association, Vol. 152 [1953], p. 1090.) Personal corn- 
accept the conclusions published by WHO, and they munication in 1966 with a Korean health authority 
received permission to reanalyze their data. The re- disclosed that only one case of coronary occlusion had 
suits of this reevaluation were published in the New been encountered in 15 years at the largest medical 
York State Medical Journal, Volume 59 ( 1958 ) , page center in Seoul, Korea. Contrast this to the very large 
2343. Whereas WHO studied 27 countries, they in- numbers of patients with this disease constantly present 
eluded only six in their final analysis. Furthermore, in every general hospital in the United States. Again, 



62 Improvement Era 



the obvious reason for this wide difference is the 
Korean diet of vegetables, fruits, and seafoods, whereas 
meat and butterfat are scarce in Korea. (Butterfat has 
been mentioned several times, and there is now suffi- 
cient evidence to conclude that this animal origin food 
product is one of the dietary factors producing coronary 
atherosclerosis. ) 

A study dealing with the effect of deliberate dietary 
alterations in humans needs to be mentioned. At the an- 
nual meeting of the American College of Physicians in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1962, a panel of promi- 
nent heart specialists presented the results of the 
following study: 

Several hundred patients already diagnosed as hav- 
ing sufficient atherosclerosis to produce signs of 
symptoms of disease were divided into two equal 
groups. Those in one group continued their usual 
American diet, and the other group was placed on a 
diet containing no animal origin meat and only small 
amounts of fowl origin meat. Seafoods, grains, vege- 
tables, and fruit were the primary foods. Those two 
groups were carefully observed for ten years. The 
group on the low meat diet showed a much lower rate 
of progression of their atherosclerosis, a much reduced 
death rate, and some participants even recovered in 
part or completely from the symptoms of their disease. 
The other group showed the expected progressive 
downhill course of the average American with this 
disease who continues to eat average American diet. 
The panel concluded that if the epidemic of coronary 
atherosclerosis in the USA is to be curtailed, the 
American populace must begin at a young age to eat 
the low meat type of diet that was tested for ten years. 

A recent list of 489 articles on the disease athero- 
sclerosis, many showing the relationship of diet to 
the formation of atherosclerosis, is available to anyone 
interested in further pursuit of this subject. (Labora- 
tory Investigation, Vol. 18, May 1968, pp. 629-39.) 
This mass of research data shows a strong relationship 
between a high incidence of atherosclerosis and dietary 
changes incident to improved economic status, such 
as the greater consumption of animal protein, saturated 
fat, refined carbohydrates, and the decreased use oF 
cereal grains. (See pages 623 to 628 of this same 
journal, "Diet and Atherosclerosis.") Although this 
relationship is now supported by almost incontrovert- 
ible proof, the medical profession has been slow to 
accept findings that decimate a long-standing and 
traditional medical dictum that a steady and large 
dietary intake of animal or fowl origin meat is essen- 
tial to good health. 

In times or places where available foods are limited 
in variety, quantity, or quality, such as in rice-based 
cultures or famine conditions, meat of animal or fowl 



origin may become an important source, and indeed, 
a necessary protein source, if available. For affluent 
contemporary cultures, however, the prudent diet with 
protein sources of fish, seafoods, whole grains (espe- 
cially wheat), and non-fat milk solids is adequate in 
protein content, less costly, and does not carry with 
it the spectre of early and severe atherosclerosis. 

Although we cannot know with certainty all the 
reasons that our Father in heaven has given us clear- 
cut and specific instructions to eat little or no meat of 
animal or fowl origin, one fact is certain: Daily con- 
sumption of animal- and fowl-origin meat and fat may 
be an important cause of coronary heart disease. 

"Yea, flesh also of beasts and of the fowls of the air, I, 
the Lord, have ordained for the use of man with 
thanksgiving; nevertheless they are to be used spar- 
ingly; 

"And it is pleasing unto me that they should not be; 
used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine. 

"All grain is ordained for the use of man and of 
beasts, to be the staff of life, not only for man but for 
the beasts of the field, and the fowls of the heaven, 
and all wild animals that run or creep on the earth; 

"And these hath God made for the use of man only 
in times of famine and excess of hunger." (D&C 89:12- 
15. Italics added.* ) 

The Word of Wisdom is a remarkable revelation 
brought forth in 1833 as a health guide. It has re- 
mained completely unchanged in 136 years, with 
medical research repeatedly attesting to its validity. 
Contrast this to man-produced medical information of 
that same time period, of which the vast majority has 
been replaced or necessarily changed as research has 
revealed fallacies therein. The items of medical litera- 
ture from that time that remain intact today are of 
value only as museum pieces. 

Had Joseph Smith sought help in 1833 from the best 
medical authorities in the world, used their ideas in 
the preparation of such a document, and then declared 
it to be of divine origin, he would have been branded 
a fraud prior to the turn of the century. The only con- 
ceivable explanation for Section 89 of the Doctrine 
and Covenants is that it came from a highly advanced 
and infallible source of intelligence beyond this earth. 
The contents of this section should be carefully studied, 
and personal eating and living habits should be formu- 
lated on the basis of advice given therein, for this is 
of a certainty a divinely inspired guide to good health 
and long life, with transcendant rewards for compliance 
that should induce the most skeptical to put it to an 
honest test. O 



'Verses 13 and 15 leave no room for rationalization regarding the 
amount of meat that we in our warm houses, warm cars, and land of 
plenty should eat. (See also Sidney B. Sperry, Doctrine and Covenants 
Compendium [Bookcraft, I960] pp. 455-56.) 



August 1969 



63 




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64 



The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Youth About: 



The Word of Wisdom 



By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 



• Anyone who has looked into the 
Grand Canyon in Arizona is awed 
by the immensity of this great 
gorge. It ranges in width from 
four to 18 miles, and its greatest 
depth is more than a mile below 
its rim. As one looks at it, the 
observation comes that it would 
have taken a very powerful force 
or a great convulsion to lay open 
such a gaping cut in the earth's 
surface. 

Yet we are informed that this 
great gorge was formed primarily 
by the ceaseless cutting of the silt- 
laden Colorado River, which now 
looks like a small ribbon laid along 
the canyon floor. 

Similarly, small actions of viola- 
tions and nonconformity to proven 
and established laws can cut a 
tragic channel in our lives. 

One hundred thirty-six years ago 
a revelation was given to guide our 
actions and thoughts in a manner 
that would allow character to be 
built and eternal life to be achieved. 
This revelation is: "A Word of Wis- 
dom. . . . Given for a principle with 



promise, adapted to the capacity 
of the weak and the weakest of all 
saints, who are or can be called 
saints. Behold, verily, thus saith 
the Lord unto you: In consequence 
of evils and designs which do and 
will exist in the hearts of conspiring 
men in the last days, I have warned 
you, and forewarn you, by giving 
unto you this word of wisdom by 
revelation." (D&C 89:1, 3-4.) 

Among other things, the Lord 
warned against the use of tobacco, 
strong drink, and hot drinks. While 
the Word of Wisdom is adapted to 
the "capacity of the weak," some 
persons ask what harm can there 
be in a cigarette or a drink. Many 
persons have found the answer to 
this question as they look back over 
a life that has eroded away through 
alcoholism, cancer, heart disease, 
and, even more seriously, a life of 
spiritual deprivation brought on by 
nonconformity to the word of the 
Lord. 

Our concern for the youth of the 
Church is not only with their health, 
but with their spiritual well-being 



Improvement Era 
lement a 



as well. The Word of Wisdom is 
adapted to the capacity of "the 
weakest of all saints, who are or can 
be called saints." It is one place 
a person can begin if he is to de- 
velop himself in the kingdom of 
God. The keeping of the Word of 
Wisdom is part of a footing on 
which a person builds character. 
The consequences of breaking the 
Word of Wisdom are serious be- 
cause they can take a person out of 
the spiritual environment of our 
Heavenly Father. 

Someone has written: 
"When health is lost; something is 

lost; 
When character is lost, all is lost." 

The stress that is placed on 
the Word of Wisdom by leaders 
in the Church is not because it is 
the greatest commandment, but be- 
cause it is a beginning point in the 
building of spirituality. A young 
man who bears the priesthood and 
a young woman in the Church 
should keep their lives above the 
snares established through the 
"evils and designs which do and 
will exist in the hearts of conspir- 
ing men in the last days." 

These forces of evil would have 
youth believe that there is nothing 
evil in taking a cigarette, a drink 
of liquor, or a cup of coffee or tea, 
and billions of dollars are spent to 
promulgate their designs. However, 
the word of the Lord is clear. Xo 
argument, reason, or slogan can 
change the command of God. He 
has declared through his servant: 

"Know ye not that ye are the 
temple of God, and that the Spirit 
of God dwelleth in you? 

"If any man defile the temple of 
God, him shall God destroy; for 
the temple of God is holy, which 
temple ye are." (1 Cor. 3:16-17.) 

Because of his love for us, the 
Lord has warned against the erod- 
ing forces employed by the evil one 
to desecrate the temple of our 
spirit. The Word of Wisdom is a 
principle on which the youth of 
the Church can build. O 



August 1969 




IZsTCST^S-H.-rHmST 




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run across the salt. 




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way on earth, where performance is the 
name of the game. Husky/Frontier/Beeline 
is the gasoline selected by Bonneville Na- 
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ALL CREDIT CARDS 



65 



The LDS Scene 




Spain Dedicated for Preaching of the Gospel 



The country of Spain has been 

dedicated by Elder Marion G. Romney, 

of the Council of the Twelve, for 

the preaching of the gospel. The dedicatory 

ceremony took place May 20 in the 

early morning on a wooded hilltop 

overlooking the skyline of Madrid. Some 

30 persons, representing about 

335 members of the Church in Spain 

(many of them American servicemen 



and their families), attended the 

ceremonies. Recent changes 

in Spanish law 

permit to individuals 

the freedom to choose, practice, and preach 

to others their religious beliefs. 

On October 22, 1968, the Church was 

recognized with official church status 

in Spain. An American serviceman's branch 

was first established in Madrid in 1954. 




London Temple Visitors Center 

A visitors center adjacent to the 
London Temple was recently 
dedicated. The new center, dedicated by 
Elder John Longden, Assistant to 
the Council of the Twelve, includes a 



50-seat theater for movie presentations 
and many exhibits and displays 
on gospel principles. More than 
1,400 persons attended the 
ceremonies. 




Education Association 
Secretary Named 

Dr. Gary D. Watts, 
a president of the 253rd 
quorum of seventy in 
the Potomac Stake 
in Virginia, has been named 
assistant executive 
secretary of the U.S. 
National Education 
Association. He will head 
the division of field services 
in the million-member 
educational organization. 




President-Elect of 
Communication Group 

Dr. R. Wayne Pace, 
chairman of speech 
communication at the 
University of Montana, 
has been named president- 
elect of the International 
Communication Association 
by the organization's 
2,000 educators and 
communication 
practitioners. Dr. Pace is 
a member of the Missoula 
(Montana) Ward. 



66 



Improvement Era 




Chilean Missionaries Honored 

A double quartet of missionaries in the Chilean Mission 
recently sang in the suburbs of Santiago at the 
dedicatory ceremonies for a new elementary school complex 
designed to handle over 3,000 students. Government 
and education leaders were in attendance. The same 
double quartet also appeared on "Sabado Sigantes," 
a popular national television program in Chile. 





Food Services 
President Elected 

Eldon Hart of the 
Rexburg (Idaho) Eighth 
Ward, business manager at 
Ricks College, has been 
elected president of the 
National Association of 
College and University 
Food Services. 
He will serve a two-year 
term of office. 



BYU Man Heads 
Engineer Group 

Dr. Cliff S. Barton, 
chairman of the department 
of civil engineering at 
Brigham Young University, 
has been elected 
president of the National 
Society for Experimental 
Stress Analysis, a 
prominent engineering 
organization. 



* 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Quarreling-and happiness at home 



One essential element in the joy of living 
is harmony and happiness at home. And this 
depends, after all, upon character and cour- 
tesy—and just plain common sense. Why, oh why 
would people who live in this closest of all relation- 
ships of life let quarreling and misunderstanding 
wreck the peace and happiness of home? "One kind 
of quarrel clears the air, like a good, sharp thunder- 
storm," wrote Dorothy Walworth. "The other kind 
of quarrel . . . leaves ugly scars and bitterness, which 
eventually can wreck a marriage. . . . When Caesar 
. . . crossed the Rubicon, he could not turn back 
and have everything the way it was before. ... If, 
in quarreling, you call names . . . and show a dia- 
bolical ability to use just the words that will hurt 
most— [if] ruthlessly you rake up all the failings of 
the past and recklessly destroy even your happiest 
memories . . . you cannot retrace your steps and 
have your marriage exactly as it was before. . . . No 
wife or husband should take too seriously what 
the other says at the end of an exhausting day . . . 
[when] weary or tense [or unwell]. ... Be gentle. 
In these days, we all have something better to do 
with our energy than spend it battling with those we 
love. . . . Don't try to win an argument just for 
the sake of winning. Your husband or wife is not 
your rival, not somebody over whom you must have 
a petty triumph. ... A quarrel should always be 
settled. It should not end . . . with two people 
sulking for days. . . . Somebody should say, 'I'm 
sorry.' Don't be too proud to say you're sorry. . . . 
Pride is too expensive. . . . Don't insist on always 
being in the right. ... A last word of warning. Keep 
your quarrels private. Public outbreaks are in the 
worst possible taste. There is only one remedy for 
them— shut up!" 1 It comes down finally to a ques- 
tion of character and courtesy and common sense. 
Don't be afraid to say you're sorry. And when some- 
one says it sincerely, accept it. Don't let pride or 
stubbornness or stupidity wreck the peace and 
happiness of a home. 



'Dorothy Walworth, "Don't Be Afraid to Say You're Sorry," Good Housekeeping, 
April 1942. 

*"Tne Spoken Word" from 
Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcast- 
ing System |une 8, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



August 1969 



67 




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June Conference and the 
YWMIA Centennial 

From near and far came the 
ward and branch, stake, district, and 
mission MIA workers to Church 
headquarters for the annual 
MIA conference the last week in June. 
This year a special treat — the 
YWMIA centennial — was in store: 
a gala banquet, a lively ball with 
stately promenade, gripping dramas, 
winning roadshows, a stirring 
quartet festival, gigantic dance 
festival, premier of the film 
Pioneers in Petticoats (on the beginnings 
of the YWMIA), informative 
workshops, sound counsel from 
General Authorities, and timely 
instructions from YMMIA General 
Superintendent G. Carlos Smith, Jr., 
and YWMIA General President 




Florence S. Jacobsen. Honorary 
Master M-Man and Golden Gleaner 
awards were presented to 
Clifford I. Cummings, a space scientist 
of the Vienna (Virginia) Ward, and 
Elizabeth T. Sardoni of the Salt 
Lake City East 27th Ward, a member 
of the first YWMIA general board. 
As usual, it was a conference 
to remember. 




Superintendent Smith President Jacobsen Clifford Cummings Elizabeth T. Sardoni 



68 




Buffs 

and 

Rebuffs 



realized the necessity of being able to 
remove this section and give it straight 
over to the youth. Getting it immediately 
after delivery is obviously far more at- 
tractive to impatient youth than getting 
something stale by the time it gets into 
their hands. 

Doheen M. Christophers 
Queensland, Australia 



Perhaps many families missed the an- 
nouncement: The "Era of Youth" is 
usually in the center of the magazine to 
serve the very purposes you mention. 
Readers may gently pull out the section 
for their youth. In some issues— for exam- 
pie, general conference issues— it is neces- 
sary for us to put the youth section in the 
hack of the magazine. 



Student Unrest 

From my observations and discussions 
with some of today's youth, I will agree 
with Dr. G. Homer Durham's observations 
in the May Era ["Student Unrest," pp. 
107-11] in that I have found an extremely 
idealistic youth. They see the "revolu- 
tion" in America as "beautiful," eliminat- 
ing poverty and prejudice. They are 
aware of the depth of knowledge on the 
earth today, and have been led to believe 
that drug use will expand the realms of 
the mind into great and deep thoughts. 
Also, they are trying to find a meaning 
for life. They believe everything their 
professors tell them. They accept existen- 
tialism and its theory of no absolute 
truth. In reality, they want the millen- 
nium, but they do not know how to 
accomplish this, or how to find Christ. 

Mrs. Don Pooley 
Nampa, Idaho 



Thanks 

I know that this is unusual, but I would 
like to express my thanks for such a fine 
magazine. The Era has been a very im- 
portant part of my life since I became a 
member of the Church at the age of 11. 
It was responsible for a great deal of my 
religious upbringing. From the time I 
first started reading it, it seemed as if 
every issue was written especially for my 
particular needs at the time. I will al- 
ways be grateful for the "Era of Youth." 
Jerold E. Gray 
United States Air Force 
Ft. Wolters, Texas 



Pull out "Era of Youth" 

We have been subscribers of the Era 
since 1963, when we first became mem- 
bers of the Church. We derive much 
benefit from the articles and conference 
reports. However, my husband and I 
feel that the "Era of Youth" is largely 
wasted in that it is attached to the main 
body of the magazine. Obviously, only 
one person can read the magazine at 
once and with all our other reading, re- 
quired and otherwise, we find that it is 
necessary for one of us to be reading 
one month's issue while the other is 
reading the other. If the "Era of Youth" 
were a complete "lift-out," it would, I am 
sure, be far more appealing to the youth, 
for it would be their very own publica- 
tion, something that they could file per- 
sonally and refer to from time to time. As 
it is, by the time mum and dad have 
finished with the magazine, they cannot 
be bothered to read it. For years we have 



The Spoken Word 

Richard L. Evans 



Careers — Credentials — Competence 



There are pressing and important decisions that many must make 
—concerning school, careers, credentials, competence— a subject 
always timely for those who are tired, and who, while tired, may 
make some shortsighted decisions. It may also be time to say some- 
thing to those who have dropped out along the way, before they 
were as fully qualified as they could be or should be— those who have 
decided they're all through so far as further training is concerned— and 
who may have decided this too soon. Increasingly it is apparent that 
muscles are really not enough, and that an untrained mind, however 
good, is not enough. It is a time when the demand diminishes for 
those less skillful, less competent, less technically trained. But it is 
also a time when the opportunities and openings are limitless for 
the minds and hands of those who are. willing to learn and to discipline 
themselves. With knowledge, skill, character, mental and manual 
facility, there are limitless ways for a person to make a happier use- 
fulness for himself, a better life for loved ones, a greater service to 
community and country. It is good to be willing to work, but better 
to be prepared to work at something specific. And all who too soon 
have supposed they have learned enough, done enough, so far as 
competence is concerned, would well ask themselves what they would 
really like to be, what they would really like to be doing, five years 
from now, or ten, or maybe more. As long as we live, we'll be doing 
something with life. It may be something we like or something we 
dislike. It may be something that is needed, or something not very 
much needed. And the rewards generally will be measured according 
to competence, and so will the satisfactions. Time goes no matter 
what we do with it, whether we use it to prepare and skillfully perform, 
or use it to putter and loaf along. Those who are looking ahead at 
life had just as well decide to be something they want to be, to make 
the effort, to stay with it, to qualify for it, and not rely on hazy hopes. 
Decide to "make the most of yourself, for that is all there is to you." 1 

J Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System May 25, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



August 1969 



69 




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70 



Lest We Forget 



EvcningTimcWith the 
JosephSmith Family 



By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 



• Almost every Sunday School 

lad can tell the story of 

the Angel Moroni's three visits to the 

bedside of the Prophet Joseph 

Smith, through the night of 

September 21-22, 1823, and how 

when young Joseph was 

working with his father the next 

morning he felt ill, and started 

to the house. While 

climbing a fence he fell, and the 

Angel instructed him to return 

and tell his father of the night before. 

The Prophet's mother, 
Lucy Mack Smith, in her History of 
Joseph Smith, adds some details. 

When the family was 
together that ensuing evening, 
Joseph made known to them 
all that he had told his father in the 
field, and of his visit to the 
Hill Cumorah, where the Angel 
had shown him the Book of Mormon 
record but had forbidden him 
to take it yet. 

Sensing that Joseph was 
fatigued by the events of the day, 
his eldest brother, Alvin, suggested: 
"Now, brother, let us go to bed, 
and rise early in the morning, 
in order to finish our day's work at an 
hour before sunset, then, 
if mother will get our suppers early, 
we will have a fine long evening, 
and we will all sit down 
for the purpose of listening to you 
while you tell us the great 
things which God has revealed to you." 
(Lucy Mack Smith, History 
of Joseph Smith [Salt Lake City: 
Stephens & Wallis, Inc., 1945], p. 81.) 

The next evening at sunset, 



Joseph gave his family the charge 

that his experiences were 

not yet to be known beyond that 

family circle. He then 

related further particulars of the 

work that he was appointed to do, 

and his family received that 

information joyfully. 

Joseph continued to receive 
instructions from the Lord, and from 
that time forth his father and 
mother continued to bring the 
children together each evening for 
the purpose of listening to 
him. Mother Smith relates: "I presume 
our family presented an 
aspect as singular as any that 
ever lived upon the face of the 
earth — all seated in a circle, 
father, mother, sons and daughters, 
and giving the most profound 
attention to a boy, eighteen 
years of age, who had never read the 
Bible through in his life; 
he seemed much less inclined to 
the perusal of books than 
any of the rest of our children, but 
far more given to meditation 
and deep study. 

"We were now confirmed in 
the opinion that God was about to 
bring to light something . . . 
that would give us a more perfect 
knowledge of the plan of 
salvation and the redemption of the 
human family. This caused us 
greatly to rejoice, the sweetest 
union and happiness pervaded our 
house, and tranquility reigned 
in our midst. 

"During our evening conversations, 
Joseph would occasionally 



Improvement Era 



give us some of the most amusing 
recitals that could be 
imagined. He would describe the 
ancient inhabitants of this 
continent, their dress, mode of 
traveling, and the animals upon which 
they rode; their cities, their 
buildings, with every particular; 
their mode of warfare; and also 
their religious worship. This 
he would do with as much ease, 
seemingly, as if he had 



spent his whole life among them." 
(Ibid., pp. 82-83.) 

Elder Eldred G. Smith, Patriarch to 
the Church and third- 
great-grandson of the Prophet's 
father, Joseph, said: "This 
sounds like the first family home 
evening of this dispensation," 
as he addressed the 137th semiannual 
general conference of the 
Church. (The Improvement Era, 
December 1967, p. 82.) O 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Does anyone know of a better bet? 



% %/ / e were not at all surprised that spring returned, that trees 
V A /budded, that flowers bloomed, that leaves came back— nor 
V Vare we surprised about the coming of summer. Nor were we at 
all surprised that the sun came up this morning, or that the moon shows 
itself in its times and seasons. We are no more surprised than a chem- 
ist is when he puts precise ingredients through a precise process and 
arrives at predictable results. And we have almost ceased to be sur- 
prised that men can orbit the earth, the moon, and return with pre- 
cisely predetermined plan and performance. This beauty, this majesty, 
this power and order— all this is evidence of a magnificent mind, a 
plan, a purpose, a planner, a Creator, a God and Father in whose hands 
all of us are, and who has "given a law unto all things, by" which 
they move in their times and their seasons" 1 — as all Creation moves 
its wondrous course. Now it is no further reach of reality that this 
same magnificent mind, this same administrator, has given us laws, 
commandments, requirements for the fullest living of life. And just 
as surely as spring returns, as summer follows, as surely as the sun 
showed itself this morning— just so surely as the physical processes 
are predictable, just so surely will the spiritual and moral laws lead 
to results in our lives. Just so surely shall we realize the results of 
the kind of lives we live. To turn a moment to the vernacular: I would 
have bet my life that spring would come again, that summer 
would follow, that the sun would have shown itself this morning. I 
would also bet my life on the results of the laws we keep, the lives 
we live— the physical laws, the spiritual laws, the moral laws-and on 
the results realized in peace and health and happiness, in our hearts 
and in our homes, in time and in eternity. I would bet my life on trying 
to live and keep the laws, the counsels, the commandments God has 
given. Does anyone know of a better bet? 



'D&C 88:42. 

#"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System June 1, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



August 1969 




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72 



TheseTimes 




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By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

President, Arizona State University at Tempe 



In life one becomes accustomed 
to many admonitions. "Keep the 
commandments" is one of them. 
The Ten Commandments, disre- 
garded as they are, nevertheless 
lie heavily on the conscience of 
mankind. Non-Bible readers in 
most cultures are warned in their 
minds not to kill, covet, commit 
adultery; to honor parents, and so 
forth. These are the old command- 
ments. They are good ones to re- 
member. They are essential to 
maintain, to live by. Law and so- 
ciety depend on their observance. 

"Keep the commandments." 



The admonition comes, sound- 
ly enough. Ears, old and young, 
listen. Minds assent. Heads nod. 
We remind ourselves again of the 
Decalogue. We add to them, in our 
mentai inventory, tithe paying, 
Word of Wisdom keeping, home 
teaching, temple-going, church at- 
tendance, special assignments, 
missionary work, welfare. Some 
may go as far as to include self- 
improvement, education, talent 
development, helping mother 
around the house. All are vital, es- 
sential, extremely important. 

But there are growing signs 



Improvement Era 



that most of us tend to keep the 
commandments we do keep in 
very, very tidy compartments. 
This also has great merit. One 
learns to walk one step at a time. 
The upward path to progress and 
perfection truly involves the ful- 
fillment of many duties. But if 
performance of duties, command- 
ment-keeping, becomes ritualis- 
tic; if we do something to get it 
over with so we can get back to 
television, the newspaper, or fix- 
ing the leaky tap, our steps may 
not take us much higher. 

Those outstanding children of 
God, the chosen people of Juda- 
ism, found themselves bound 
by ritualistic performances. The 
Talmud was produced. Learned 
scribes arose. Jesus Christ was 
accused of Sabbath-breaking by 
performing healings on the sacred 
day. The Son of God was accused 
of blasphemy by leading local 
elders. 

As Jesus neared the end of a 
short life, he met with his chosen 
Twelve for a last supper in an up- 
per room. He washed their feet. 
He dipped a sop, handed it to 
Judas Iscariot in response to an 
inquiry from Simon Peter, relayed 
to him through John the Beloved. 
Judas departed. 

Then the Master instructed the 
remaining eleven. He gave them, 
at the Last Supper, a new com- 
mandment. It coincides with the 
first and great commandment, 
love of God, and with the second, 
love of neighbor as one's self — 
using the despised Samaritans as 
the example, in answer to the 
question "who is my neighbour?" 

As recorded in John 13:34-35, 
Jesus said to the eleven: 

"A new commandment I give 
unto you, That ye love one an- 
other; as I have loved you, that ye 
also love one another. 

"By this shall all men know that 
ye are my disciples, if ye have love 
one to another." 




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74 



The discourse continues, as re- 
corded for us today, through near- 
ly five chapters of The Gospel Ac- 
cording to St. John. The new 
commandment was repeated and 
repeated again. The discourse was 
then concluded (John 16:33) with 
the words: "These things I have 
spoken unto you, that in me ye 
might have peace. In the world ye 
shall have tribulation: but be of 
good cheer; I have overcome the 
world." 

Then the Savior concluded the 
instruction with the great prayer 
recorded in John, Chapter 17. 
That prayer concludes, as record- 
ed, with the prayer to the Father 
that the new commandment may 
be realized: 

"0 righteous Father, the world 
hath not known thee: but I have 
known thee, and these have known 
that thou hast sent me. 

"And I have declared unto them 
thy name, and will declare it: that 
the love wherewith thou hast 
loved me may be in them, and I 
in them" (John 17:25-26. Italics 
added.) 

Why is it so difficult to remem- 
ber the new commandment? 

"Keep the commandments." 

Why is recall to mind of the new 
commandment often, perhaps too 
often, infrequent? 

What is right in these times 
may well rest on such recollection. 

What is wrong in these times — 
cold war, hot war, murder, strife, 
poverty, unrest, distress — may 
well remain wrong until the new 
commandment strikes the minds 
of individual men and women with 
greater force. 

Much in the world is old. The 
new commandment is ever new. 
So new is it, indeed, that it may 
have hardly been discovered by 
some. Where it is known, the test 
of discipleship provides the great- 
est satisfactions of life and gives 
meaning to all other command- 
ments. 



O 



Improvement Era 



A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price 

Part 8 (Continued) 



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Ppfe 
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Facsimile No.l, by the Figures 



• A Hawk With a Message 

If we really want to know what Fac- 
simile No. 1 is depicting, the hawk in 
the picture is our best clue yet. For 
recently the hawk has turned out to 
be the hero of a significant little drama 
that ties many things together. From 
here on the reader might as well know 
that this writer intends to show that 
the Book of the Dead fragments, the 
Breathing Papyrus, and the three fac- 
similes, that is, all the available Egyp- 
tian materials that were once in the 
possession of Joseph Smith, contain 
the elements of a single story, which 
happens to be the story of Abraham as 
told in the Book of Abraham and the 
early Jewish legends. Such a statement 
sounds wild enough at this point, but 
let us follow the bird as he leads us 
into a twilight zone of myth and ritual. 
One of the longest and most im- 
portant chapters of the Book of the 
Dead is No. 78, an "interesting and 
elusive spell," as Professor De Buck 
called it, having the title "Spell for 
assuming the form of a divine falcon."' 
E.A.W. Budge appended to his own edi- 
tion and translation of the Ani manu- 
script "the text of the LXXVIIIth Chap- 
ter given by Naville . . . reproduced in 
full," because that document was in his 
opinion "so very important for the right 
understanding of this very interesting 
Chapter. 1 "- Dr. Budge's confidence in 
his right understanding of the docu- 
ment was, to say the least, premature 
if we take the later studies of the same 
chapter by De Buck (1949), Drioton 
(1953), and Brunner (1961) as a 
standard, for unless that trio are hope- 
lessly at sea, Budge had no understand- 



By Dr. Hugh Nibley 

ing of the text whatever. 

It was in 1949 that Professor De 
Buck, in the process of editing the Cof- 
fin Texts, called attention to his dis- 
covery that what he called "the earliest 
version of the Book of the Dead 78" was 
to be found in a much earlier Coffin 
Text, Spell 312. :i As everyone knows, 
the Book of the Dead is a relatively late 
production in Egypt, and the Joseph 
Smith Papyrus belongs to a late period. 
But Professor De Buck's find showed 
that what we have in these documents 
is not a late composition but only a late 
copy. The Coffin Text version of Chap- 
ter 78 can be traced clear back to the 
XII and even the IX Dynasties, 1 and it 
is remarkably close to the much later 
Book of the Dead copy. Politely and 
cautiously, Professor De Buck pointed 
out that in view of the new understand- 
ing of Chapter 78 of the Book of the 
Dead as provided by the older Coffin 
Text version, "it is difficult to suppress 
the feeling of skepticism as to the in- 
telligibility of the Book of the Dead 
version, not so much of its separate 
sentences, which as a rule arc not diffi- 
cult to translate, but above all things 
of the plot and story of the spell as a 
whole."' 1 

Budge had had no trouble translating 
the separate sentences, but the sentences 
put together made no sense, or rather 
made the kind of sense habitually at- 
tributed to the Egyptians. Contrary to 
what one might suppose, to possess a 
real clue to what De Buck calls "the 
plot and story of the spell as a whole" 
is far more important than having a 
well-preserved text. Every student 
knows that if he is aware of what is 



going on in a text, it is not too difficult 
to piece together the scattered fragments 
of it even when they are very small and 
few — Professor J. H. Wilson demon- 
strated this in his skillful reconstruction 
of the Book of the Dead fragments of 
the Joseph Smith collection. 7 But if one 
is not aware of what is going on, even 
a complete text only befuddles and 
confuses — and this is clearly illustrated 
in the case of Dr. Budge, who had in 
his possession fully 90 percent of the 
story as it is told in Coffin Text 312, 
and yet was totally unaware of the 
plot and story, characters, dialogue, 
setting, and significance of the drama. 
He didn't even suspect that what lay 
before him in Book of the Dead Chap- 
ter 78 were the remains of a well- 
constructed drama; for him such a thing 
simply did not exist, but instead he saw 
only a disconnected jumble of primi- 
tive charms reflecting an infantile and 
half-savage mentality. Lacking the key 
that was later discovered, Professor 
Budge, a giant of scholarship if there 
ever was one, goes on solemnly and 
diligently adding sentence to sentence 
and note to note as he builds up his 
imposing edifice of laborious nonsense, 
nonsense that the world has been 
taught to think of as quintessentially 
Egyptian. 

There is a fable for critics in this, 
but also a lesson for those who would 
criticize the critics. For Budge was, in 
fact, following his Egyptian scribes 
where they led him, and they had long 
since lost the trail — they too were quite 
unaware of the nature of the document 
they were perpetuating. s Even Profes- 
sor De Buck, when he went back to 



August 1969 



75 



what he called "the original version of 
the Book of the ticsd 78," was quite 
aware that though the more ancient 
texts were "more correct" than any 
Book of the Dead version, they were 
still far from being the true original of 
the story. Granted "that the contents 
of the spells were already enigmatic 
and obscure to the writers and readers 
of the Book of the Dead," 9 the errors 
that led them astray and the attempts 
to correct those errors (attempts that 
only made things worse) were already 
of great age: "Already in the manu- 
scripts of the Coffin Texts this process 
is in full swing." 10 

Professor Drioton, following up and 
reviewing De Buck's work, saw in Cof- 
fin Text 312 instead of an original 
composition the work of a compiler, 
whose object was to supply a bundle 
of magical-sounding writings (regard- 
less of sense or meaning) for the funer- 
ary market, and who to do so busily 
rummaged among heaps of old religious 
books, the accumulated debris of the 
ages, arid came up at random with this 
particular dramatic text. 11 In butcher- 
ing the text to suit his purpose, the 
writer of Coffin Text 312, with char- 
acteristic sloppiness, spared "by in- 
advertence a few designations of persons 
and scenic indications," which are 
enough to supply modern scholars with 
the key to the story, but were of course 
overlooked by the later copyists of the 
Book of the Dead. 12 Professor Brunner 
in the latest study notes that "the liter- 
ary character of the text has suffered 
frightfully in being taken over into the 
corpus of funerary literature," whether 
of the Coffin Texts or the Book of the 
Dead, ffsj dramatic form having been 
effectively obscured. 13 "Actually," he 
observes, "our Coffin Text was origi- 
nally no funerary text at all," being 
"clumsily" ad-apt ed as such. 1 ' 

But now to our story. The leading- 
character is the messenger-bird, who is 
dressed as a hawk in imitation of Horns. 
Professor Drioton prefaces his discus- 
sion of the play with a very informative 
lecture on what the Egyptians did and 
did not mean by a "transformation," 
the upshot of which is that the Egyp- 
tian never at any time conceived of the 
transformations into animal, bird, or 
other forms as being literal, "for noth- 
ing was ever farther from their men- 
tality than ideas of metempsychosis." 1 " 1 
So in what follows we are to show the 
Egyptians the courtesy of never imagin- 
ing our messenger-bird as a real hawk. 
Drioton would entitle the play "The 
Misadventures of a Messenger of 
Horus," which makes it a comedy. 1 r ' 
Dr. De Buck designated the leading 
character as "the Messenger or media- 
tor," while Brunner prefers to call him 
"Der Lichtgeist" or Spirit af Light, as 



the messenger calls himself. 

The play Opens with "Osiris, stunned 
by the blows of Seth, hiding out' in 
Busiris." And so the scene is set in 
Busiris, the place of Osiris's sacrificial 
death and the center of human sacrifice 
in Egypt from the earliest to the latest 
times. There we find the god laid out 
for burial in his underground crypt 
("enseveli sous terre"), lying helpless, 
dazed, beaten, exhausted, but not quite 
dead, for as the play opens he is pray- 
ing desperately for deliverance: "O 
Horus, come I beseech thee to Busiris 
and rescue me!" 17 He begs the god to 
behold him in his dire distress and to 
restore his power and dominion, "that 
the gates of hell might not prevail 
against me. . ." (69f). This last is as 
good a rendering as any of what is trans- 
lated, "that the gates may beware of 
me" (De Buck), "defend me from the 
gates of Dat [the Underworld]" (Brun- 
ner), or "that the gates be vigilant in 
my behalf" (Drioton); all having the 
common idea that the gates of the 
underworld shall operate for and not 
against the hero. He then prays that 
his relentless enemy be not allowed to 
pursue him further or discover how 
helpless he really is in his hiding place 
(69g-70a-b). In one of the Coffin Text 
inscriptions (TIC) the ideogram for 
the helplessness of the god shows him 
on the lion-couch; that this is more 
than a meaningless convention is indi- 
cated in T. G. Allen's edition of the 
Book of the Dead, where Chapter 85 
is headed by a vignette of a figure of a 
lion-couch under the fra-bird "with an 
unerased falcon head" (!) and is en- 
titled "Spell for assuming the form of 
a Soul and not entering the place of 
execution." "Dying is my abomina- 
tion,;' says the figure on the lion- 
couch; "I enter not into the execution 
place of the Nether World." 18 Here 
the lion-couch vignette matches the 
lion-couch scenes of the temples of 
Opet, Sethi I, Philae, etc., as well as the 
situation in the play: it is not an em- 
balming but an attempted execution 
that concerns us. 

To the prayer of the one on the 
couch, a chorus of gods (or in manu- 
script D1C of common people) adds a 
fervid "Amen!" (70c, ir myy, "let it be 
done accordingly"), and then a sort of 
Choregos appears and cries, "Be silent, 
O ye people [or gods] while a god 
speaks to a god!" (70e-71a). The 
dialogue that follows is as astonishingly 
like a piece of Greek drama as what 
has gone before, for Horus appears 
dressed as a hawk and begins with an 
aside expressing his hope that the suf- 
fering Osiris will heed the Truth. He 
advises Osiris to consider his condition 
most carefully and specially to make 
an effort to free himself (71c-72f), even 



joking about his helplessness and sham- 
ing him into action (72g-73b). This 
reminds one very much of the "pep- 
talk" the two ladies give to Osiris as 
they help him revive on the lion-couch, 
and Drioton and Brunner both detect 
a distinct note of challenge and banter 
in the speech. But then comes the 
surprise. Having done the best he can 
to boost his father's morale, Horus an- 
nounces that he is going back to heaven 
to "beg and request of the Lord of 
All" (73d) that he be endowed with 
the necessary authority to carry out the 
mission his father desires of him. 

All our editors are surprised and 
puzzled by this: Horus comes as a 
hawk in answer to his father's prayer 
and apparently refuses to help him! 
Brunner, who gave the closest thought 
to the problem, concluded that Horus 
could not help his father until he had 
obtained a certain crown, representing 
plenary power in heaven and on earth, 
which he could only get by going 
to heaven and petitioning "the Lord 
of All"; this, Brunner avers, is the crux 
of the whole drama. 19 Actually, Horus 
does not refuse his father's request, 
since in the end he faithfully carries 
it out, but first he explains that he 
must "go hence to the limits of the 
heavens to speak a word with Geb 
[the second of the godhead] and to re- 
quest and beseech the Lord of All to 
grant me hwi" (73c-e), where hwi 
means, according to Brunner, "Be- 
fehlsgewalt" — the authority to give 
orders. 20 

In Brunner's analysis the real drama 
is enacted between Horus and Osiris, 
the true leading characters, who appear 
only twice, first at the beginning, when 
their dramatic dialogue provides a 
clear exposition of the play, and again 
at the end, when Horus returns to the 
scene and repeats word for word the 
prayer with which Osiris opened the 
drama — the prayer that he is now at 
last qualified to fulfill. "The text be- 
gins," he writes, "with the plaintive 
supplication of Osiris that Horus come 
to his aid. ... It ends with a corona- 
tion hymn to Horus as heir to the 
throne." 21 Such is the gist of the story: 
Osiris in his crypt cries out for de- 
liverance, and a heavenly messenger, 
describing himself as a hawk, appears, 
whereupon the hero is rescued and tri- 
umphantly enthroned. It is our well- 
known Sed-festival and lion-couch 
theme. 

But in between the prayer and its 
fulfillment there is a hitch, a real 
problem of such stuff as plays are 
made of. It is no small thing to raise 
the dead, and the question of Horus's 
power to do so as a junior member of 
the firm gives an opportunity for an 
interesting development of the theme. 



76 



Improvement Era 



It is a third party, "the Messenger of 
Horus," as Drioton calls him, who takes 
over and provides the real entertain- 
ment and fully two-thirds of the spoken 
lines of the play.-- This character is 
also dressed as a hawk and wants very 
badly to be taken for Horus. Who is 
he? Bearing in mind that in all known 
versions of the play and in all the 
translations there is a great shuffling 
and conflicting of personal pronouns, 
with no two copyists or translators 
agreeing as to exactly who is speaking 
or doing what or to whom most of the 
time, I believe that the second hawk 
can still be identified clearly by his 
words and actions. 

As soon as the true Horus has left 
the crypt of the helpless Osiris to 
charge himself with new power in the 
courts on high, another hawk appears. 
He is called "the Messenger of Horus," 
"the Mediator," "the Spirit of Light," 
by our translators, but never is he 
designated, as he would like to be, as 
just plain Horus. He begins by an- 
nouncing that he is "one who dwells 
in radiance" (74g), boasts that he has 
priority in age and honor over the real 
Horus (76b-c), vaunts his great magi- 
cal powers (76d-e), claims to be no less 
than the "elect and appointed" one, 
first among "the beings who dwell in 
the Radiance" (76f), enjoying the high- 
est glory in the preexistence among 
those begotten in the spiritual creation 
(76f-g), having received even at that 
time the full authority of Horus (76i- 
77a). "He is really too much of a 
braggart, this messenger of Horus," 
writes Professor Drioton; "that is no 
doubt the comic element in the play."- ;i 

The Messenger swaggers up to the 
gate and demands access to Osiris, but 
is firmly checked and put in his place 
by Rwty, the doorkeeper. Rwty is the 
double-headed lion who guards the 
entrance (one head) and the exit (the 
other) to the other world — we have 
already noted the Egyptian conceit 
that holy and inapproachable places 
are guarded by lions. Rwty points out 
to the Messenger that though he may 
look exactly like Horus, he can't get by 
because he lacks the nemes-crown, "the 
insignia of gods and men." (Drioton.) 
The nemes-crown, which Drioton char- 
acterizes as a "cache-perruque" and 
T. G. Allen calls a turban, seems to 
have been a sort of white cloth cap.' 21 
Brunner, as we have seen, considers it 
the main property of the play, since it 
represents the authority without which 
the mission of the Horus-messenger 
cannot be carried out — lacking this 
badge of authority the true Horus is 
helpless and the false one is a fraud. 

Instead of producing the cap, how- 
ever, or going to fetch it as the first 
Horus did, "the messenger backs down" 



(Drioton), covering up his embarrass- 
ment with bluster, insisting that he is 
the authentic representative of Horus 
and is entrusted with awesome knowl- 
edge, having been made privy to the 
great secrets imparted by Osiris to his 
son "through the partition." 25 His 
foolish indiscretion is at once chal- 
lenged by Rwty: " 'Repeat to me then 
what Horus said as his father's word 
through the partition . . . and' I will 
give you the nemes-crown, 1 so said 
Rwty" (78d-f). His bluff is called 
again; the Messenger is speechless, 
saved from his painful or comical pre- 
dicament only when the real "Horus 
appears, he who is behind the injured 
eye" (79c-d), which Brunner inter- 
prets as "hinter seiner geraubten Herr- 
schaft," indicating that someone, plain- 
ly the other hawk, has stolen his 
authority. By command of a voice 
from above, the true Horus is passed 
by the doorkeeper and goes on his way 
singing a lyric ode right out of Aristo- 
phane's Birds on the exhilaration of 
travel through space — another indica- 
tion that he is the true Horus-hawk. 

It is odd that the scholars studying 
the text did not recognize the wild- 
blue-yonder motif: the joyful, un- 
trammeled motion through the void 
(80a), mounting to the heights as a 
hawk (80b), endowed by Rwty with 
wings (80d), sitting on a dizzy perch 
amidst the four mighty winds (80e), 
undismayed by fear of falling in empty 
space (80f), confident in one's power 
and beauty (80g), never losing one's 
way through the trackless skies (81a), 
buoyed and sustained by the very 
winds that terrify mortals (81b), un- 
deterred and undaunted by the raging 
tempest (81c). It has all the makings 
of a lovely Euripidean ode. 

When the true Horus has departed, 
the rascal restores his self-confidence 
by remarking, probably to himself, 
that of course he could not tell the 
secret words, because if he did "the 
pillars of heaven would pursue me, 
after punishing my presumption" 
(82a). And so, as impudent as ever, 
he resumes his boasting: "I am the 
hawk who dwells in glory (82b), en- 
joying my own authority and my own 
princely crown!" (82c). "But," as Pro- 
fessor Drioton puts it, "this gets him 
nowhere"; he is checked again, this 
time by Akr, another gate-keeping 
lion (82e), but again the real Horus 
shows up and again is cleared by the 
imperious voice of "the Supreme Lord" 
speaking from heaven and demanding 
clearance for his ambassador: "Let no 
one oppose this spirit [my?] alter-ego, 
representative, member of the staff, 
the top-ranking Horus!" (82f). The 
voice continues to vouch for the true 
Horus in no uncertain terms (82g-k), 



Here are the 

Egyptians, telling us of 

"Lucifer, the Son 

of the Morning 



stating that he is under orders to see 
Osiris in Busiris and is under no cir- 
cumstances to be detained, since he 
comes on assignment from "the Great 
Palace" itself (821-p), and is to be 
denied no aid and assistance wher- 
ever he comes on pain of severe dis- 
pleasure in heavenly places (83a-d). 

The false messenger, in the manner 
of the clever slave in the New Comedy, 
gleefully arrogates all this authority 
to himself — after all, isn't he the very 
image of Horus? — and, more obnoxious 
than ever, begins to lord it over every- 
body in sight. That at least is one 
way of interpreting the speech that 
follows, beginning "Down on your 
faces!" and ending with a resounding 
"Horus has spoken!" (83i-l). 2 ' 5 In the 
following speech he describes himself 
as a follower of Horus, the Lord of All 
(841), a companion of Horus rather 
than Horus himself. Of course it is the 
real Horus who finally penetrates into 
the crypt, passing the guardians of the 
underworld castle of Osiris (84m-85f) 
and carrying out all instructions (85h). 
The rival, however, still seems to be at 
it, claiming that he too has the power 
to go below: "Horus has invested me 
with his ha, I have his authority!" 
(85i-j), and demanding that the mys- 
teries and secret places of the lower 
worlds be opened to him, since he has 
a message from Horus to his father 
(851-p). The keepers of the under- 
world announce the arrival of a visi- 
tor to Osiris (86c-g), whose reply is 
not preserved. From here we go di- 
rectly to the final acclamation and 
coronation scene, as the proper wind- 
up to any ancient comedy or mum- 
ming. 

Who is the comic character who 
tries to crash the gates of Rwty, Aker, 
Isis, and Osiris in that order?- 7 His 
"clumsy personal behavior," the "bur- 
lesque intermezzi" in which he struts 
"m pathetische-karrihierender Weise," 
makes good theater, according to Brun- 
ner, and his presence introduces the 
dramatic elements of intrigue, dilemma, 
and pungency into the play, according 
to Drioton. But he is a clown and an 
incompetent; by what right does he 
usurp the honors of Horus in a re- 



August 1969 



77 




At right, the Joseph Smith papyri contain this representation of the four canopic 
figures standing upon a symbolic lotus, signifying all the regions of the earth 
over which Pharaoh holds sway. In the Explanation to Facsimile No. 1, we are 
told that the canopic figures represent regional deities; in Facsimile No. 2 (Fig. 6) 
we also learn that the quartet "represents this earth in its four quarters." 



ligious drama? His epithets at first 
sight suggest his identity: Who is the 
Spirit of Light but Lucifer, the Son 
of the Morning, boasting of his pre- 
existent glory, first in the councils of 
heaven, claiming priority of age and 
honor over Horus himself, boasting of 
his knowledge and power, his kingdom 
and great glory, who would fain claim 
the crown but does not have it; who 
claims to know the answers but cannot 
deliver when they are required of him 
at a certain time and place? Who but 
the Adversary, the Deceiver, "Satan . . . 
transformed into an angel of light"? 
(2 Cor. 11:14.) As if to leave us in no 



doubt, he describes himself as one of a 
serpent host who was on hand "before 
Isis came into being . . ." (76c). 
Strange that he should mention himself 
as a serpent stealing the march on Isis, 
the Egyptian Eve. He covets the honors 
of the son: "To be sure, you have the 
form of Horus," says Rwty to him (De 
Buck's translation), "but you do not 
possess the nemes-crown" (77d-e) ; he 
never gets it. 

But how can the Messenger of Light 
be an impostor if, as we are expressly 
told (73f-74f), he was commissioned 
by the real Horus to take his place, 
assume his form, and exercise his au- 



thority? The men who copied down 
our texts, being as far removed from 
the original version as we are, had to 
explain the close resemblance between 
the two hawks as best they could, and 
the readiest explanation was, of course, 
that hawk No. 2 had been duly autho- 
rized to double for hawk No. 1: indeed, 
how could the other hawk get away 
with his masquerade save by express 
permission of the real Horus? Actually, 
that is by no means the only possible 
explanation or even the best, since the 
messenger's masquerade was after all 
not successful, but constantly got him 
into awkward and comical predica- 



78 



Improvement Era 



i 







»: . W «■ . ■* 




Aa *■•■-■■ 



w m 0! m m ♦ *> m m mm * m m m 



«""*» 



It 



I A «**f i A 




Facsimile No. 1, Figures 5 through 8: "The idolatrous gods" of "Elkenah, Mahmackrah, Korash. 




■Ft" 

at*. 







#i 



... *|^ 



Above, Pharaoh worshiping the four 
canopic figures as deities — "idola- 
trous gods." This plainly shows that 
the four figures are more than mere 
funerary furniture, as Joseph Smith's 
critics have maintained. 

An old Assyrian version of the lion- 
couch scene, at left, shows that the 
theme is to be found in the Chaldaean 
as well as the Egyptian spheres of 
influence. 




ments. It was plainly his idea, not that 
of the real Horus, to pass himself off 
as the true son and heir: the clever, 
vicious imposture is a basic part of the 
ritual drama, in which Seth rivals 
Horus at every point. In this version 
of the story he struts and clowns as a 
Lord of Misrule while the king lies in 
the tomb, but he constantly stubs his 
toe, to the delight of the crowd, and is 
put in his place when the real heir 
appears and takes the throne. 

All this is pertinent to the lion- 
couch story. In all the Jewish legends 
telling of the rescue of Abraham, the 
hero's prayer from the altar is answered 



by the appearance of an angel, usually 
Gabriel, sometimes Michael, who asks 
whether he should save him from his 
fate. Invariably the Patriarch replies 
by declining the offer of assistance with 
the explanation that he expects God 
and God alone to save him. In some 
cases (to be treated below) he even 
tells the angel that he refuses to deal 
with one having inadequate authority. 
This, of course, is the final test for 
Abraham, who at this point has demon- 
strated that he trusts God all the way, 
and so at this moment he hears the 
voice of God speaking to him and at the 
same time is delivered from a sacrificial 



death. In the Book of Abraham we 
meet with the same peculiar and there- 
fore significant complication: "And as 
they lifted up their hands upon me, 
that they might offer me up and take 
away my life, behold, I lifted up my 
voice unto the Lord my God, and the 
Lord hearkened and heard . . . and the 
angel of his presence stood by me, and 
immediately unloosed my bands; And 
his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abra- 
ham, behold, my name is Jehovah, and 
/ have heard thee, and have come down 
to deliver thee. . . ." (Abr. 1:15-16. 
Italics added.) Just what, is the angel's 
role in this? Whenever the real hawk 



August 1969 



79 



Joseph Smith 
Papyrus No. 1 
is a sacrificial scene, 
says the author 



appears in the version of Coffin Text 
312, the voice of Atum is heard from 
the heavens and the hird passes on 
without speaking. 

But that is not the only complica- 
tion. The legends all agree in telling 
of how at the last moment before the 
sacrifice, just before the angel appeared 
to Abraham, another party stood by the 
altar, Satan, no less, magnificently 
attired in black silk, and offered to 
deliver the Patriarch and bestow great 
power and dominion upon him if he 
would only recognize his authority and 
do obeissance to Nimrod, his protege. 
He was, of course, denounced and dis- 
missed by Abraham without argument, 
but could we not have here an echo of 
the two delivering angels, one true 
and one false? The plain designation 
of the false Messenger in Coffin Text 
312 as "The Spirit of Light" and his 
failure to pass any of the tests of the 
true Messenger from God provide an 
impressively close parallel. 

The drama of Coffin Text 312 closes 
with the usual acclamation and corona- 
tion; "O Osiris, thou are exalted upon 
thy throne; thy heart liveth! Thy mem- 
bers are rejuvenated, thy heart re- 
joiceth! (86h-j). Thou hast overcome 
Seth;, Geb hath placed thee on the 
throne of succession (85k-l). Let there 
be a roll call of all the followers of the 
god and all their offerings (85m-n), 
while the Great President sits at the 
head of the Council of the Gods, hav- 
ing turned over all this authority 
[hwi, power to command] to Horus, 
the Son of Osiris (85r-s), who accord- 
ingly has taken over the government 
of Egypt; all are subject to him (85u). 
And now he feasts with the multitude — 
he gives life to millions, he alone 
through the Eye of the Mistress of the 
'Universe." (86v-w.) All of this reads 
exactly like the liturgy of an early 
Roman year-rite,- s and fits nicely into 
the Sed festival; and not the least im- 
portant aspect of the winding-up 
scene is the application of the whole 
thing to the ruler of Egypt: it is for his 
benefit that the whole thing is staged. 

The fragments that make up Coffin 
Text 312 are from, I believe, the third 



part of a trilogy in which the first play 
or act was the famous Prologue in 
Heaven, the second the conflict with 
Seth from its beginning to its direful 
end, from which the hero emerges in 
his parlous plight at the beginning of 
the third act. The two earlier epi- 
sodes are clearly alluded to in the 
text, in the vivid little flashbacks to 
the Messenger's role in the preexistence 
and in the passing reference to Seth 
as the enemy (the only time he is men- 
tioned) in 85k. The first two acts or 
plays are well represented in Egyptian 
literature, e.g. in the Shabako text and 
the stories of Horus versus Seth, but 
the third one has been hidden behind 
the veil of the Osiris mysteries. A 
great deal of work remains to be done 
here. But now it is time to consider 
the next figure of the Joseph Smith 
Papyrus.* 

Facsimile No. 1, Fig. 3. "The idola- 
trous priest of Elkenah, attempting to 
offer up Abraham as a sacrifice." The 
first thing to notice is that "the priest 
of Elkenah was also the priest of 
Pharaoh" (Abr. 1:7), since "at this 
time it was the custom [a peculiar 
custom, apparently, and one of limited 
duration] of the priest of Pharaoh, the 
king of Egypt, to offer up upon the 
altar which was built in the land of 
Chaldea . . ." (Abr. 1:8). A priest was 
taking the place of Pharaoh in this 
operation. 

Question: Because Pharaoh was away 
in Egypt? 

Answer: Not necessarily. Rather, 
because it was the custom for a priest 
to do so. The office was properly the 
king's but of course he needed as- 
sistance. A recent study explains that 
"pharaoh also acted as High Priest. 
Being a son of a god he could mediate 
between heaven and earth. Theoreti- 
cally each offering was done by the 
pharaoh. . . " 34 

Q: The priest was only his helper? 

A: Yes. As Drioton and Vandier put 
it, "only the king could offer sacrifices. 
. . . Actually the clergy carried on for 
him . . . but only as a substitute for 
the royal person." 35 We have seen that 
the picture of Pharaoh personally sac- 
rificing the enemy chief "is found again 
and again in every period" of the 
Egyptian record, and the sacrificial 
liturgy makes it perfectly clear that 
the priest is merely taking the king's 
place. 3 " Hence the showdown between 
Abraham and the man with the knife 
is really the encounter between the 
prophet and the monarch, no matter 
who holds the weapon. Likewise the 
priest could either wear a jackal mask 37 
or simply be bald, as shown in the 
facsimile: the Salt Papyrus, in fact, 
specifies that the sacrificing priest be 

'Footnotes 29-33 have been omitted. 



bald (fkty).** No matter how you view 
him, he is a hostile figure. 

Q: Why do you say that? 

A: I am thinking of that striking- 
passage from Diodorus (I, 91) which 
tells how the embalming priest who 
made the first incision in the body 
with a prehistoric flint sword was 
cursed, stoned, and driven out as a 
murderer. Whether the priest in the 
picture is an undertaker or not, he is 
still wielding the sacrificial knife. In 
Egypt all sacrifices were ritual murder. 

Q: Even of grains or vegetables? 

A: Even over grains and vegetables 
the priest would wave the king's an- 
cient battle-mace as a reminder that 
whatever was being sacrificed was the 
Pharaoh's enemy and victim. 39 

Q: Where is the knife in the Joseph 
Smith Papyrus? 

A: That part of the document has 
been destroyed, but there is ample rea- 
son for believing that it was there 
when the facsimile was engraved. 10 
If every embalming was a sacrifice, 
every sacrifice was also an execution, 
as we have just seen. The priest who 
sacrifices the oryx says to the king: "I 
make thine arm victorious over the 
rebels, I place thine enemy under thy 
knife." 11 In the mysteries of Osiris 
the emphasis is on violence as the 
figure on the couch is surrounded by 
demons with drawn knives — a peace- 
ful embalming operation is not the 
idea.'- 

Q: I can see that a knife might be 
the most likely thing for the priest to 
be holding, but doesn't he hold other 
things instead in the other Anubis 
scenes? 

A: Anubis standing by the bier 
usually holds a jar of ointment or a 
bandage in his upraised hand, but I 
think this figure was different. 

Q: How different? 

A: In all the scenes I have ever seen 
in which the Anubis priest holds those 
objects in his left hand, his right hand 
is equally conspicuous, stretched out 
lower than the other arm over the 
body, palm down, in a stock ritual 
gesture strictly prescribed by the 
canons of funerary art. But what have 
we in our papyrus? No right arm 
at all! It is hard, in view of the rigidly 
established standard forms, to avoid 
the impression that the artist is con- 
sciously avoiding that other arm. The 
priest is not an embalmer. 

Q: But why does he hold the knife 
in his left hand? 

A: He really doesn't. It is just shown 
that way. A number of studies have 
demonstrated that the Egyptian artist 
always drew people in the right pro- 
file whenever he could, "while the left 
profile is shown as a mirror-image." 43 
So our priest is properly shown in right 



80 



Improvement Era 



profile. But at the same time "in a two- 
dimensional drawing the Egyptian 
artist was afraid of criss-crossing," so 
he simply put the knife in the other 
hand. Comparison of Egyptian draw- 
ings and statues reveals that when a 
figure is shown as left-handed in a 
drawing, the same figure in the same 
attitude is seen to be right-handed in 
his statue, which proved to Professor 
Mueller that the left-handedness of 
the drawn figures is merely a conven- 
tion to avoid the crossing of arms." 
In Papyrus No. I the left-handedness of 
the priest, like the awkward position 
of his legs, is an unavoidable conse- 
quence of telling a particular story: 
it comes from the necessity of having 
the two main figures oppose each other. 
The preference of Egyptian artists for 
the right profile is one of the canons of 
their art and belongs to the same order 
that requires hieroglyphic figures to 
face toward the beginning of a text, 
so that the procession seems to move 
backwards. 

Q: Why is that? 

A: Supposedly because the proces- 
sion must start from a holy shrine or 
person, and since no one may turn his 
back on divinity gods and mortals 
must always face each other, i.e. they 
must face in opposite directions. Hence 
the rule that while mortals are drawn 
in right profile, gods must be shown 
in the left. 4r> It has been increasingly 
clear in recent years that the direction 
in which figures face is something to 
be taken seriously in understanding 
Egyptian art, and it may furnish an 
important clue to the meaning of the 
Joseph Smith Papyrus. 

Q: What do you mean, important 
clue? 

A: Notice that the priest, the lion, 
and the crocodile all face in the same 
direction, showing their right profiles. 
What do they all have in common? 
They take life, they are sinister 
figures — literally sinister, "on the 
left"! In Egyptian common speech, "to 
see the face of the crocodile" was to 
die, 45a and priest, lion, knife, and 
crocodile all show the man on the 
couch to be in grave jeopardy. All the 
other figures, on the other hand, face 
in the opposite direction, the direction 
in which the immortals face, all of 
them being invested with divine power 
to save life: The hawk comes to rescue 
the hero; the four canopic figures have 
always the function of protecting the 
body from harm and assisting in its 
resurrection; the lotus (as we shall 
see) revives the dead and protects the 
living; finally the figure on the couch is 
brought face to face with his rival and 
would-be destroyer. The whole compo- 
sition proclaims the conflict of two 
forces. This is emphasized deliberately 



by the introduction of figures not found 
in other lion-couch scenes — the lotus 
and the crocodile, which to the Egyp- 
tian mind represent the ultimate 
extremes respectively of destruction and 
preservation. Having taken such spe- 
cial pains to give a particular interpre- 
tation to the scene, the artist cannot 
be denied the privilege of putting such 
an object as a knife in the priest's 
hand. Notice in the facsimile how 
that knife dominates the picture — it is 
exactly in the center of vision and 
exactly half-way between the eye of 
Abraham and the eye of the priest; it 
is the focal point of the whole scene, 
as it should be. 

Q: You spoke of a sacrificial knife 
as a primitive flint sword. Is this that 
kind of knife? 

A: The knife depicted in the first 
Hedlock engraving has very much the 
shape and size of some of the prehis- 
toric ceremonial knives used by the 
Egyptians. In Chapter 71 of the Book 
of the Dead the sacrificial knife is 
described as representing the crescent 
moon, the officiant being Thoth, the 
moon-god. 1 5b 

Q: You have said that the lion and 
the crocodile have a necessary and 
sacred function to perform in the lion- 
couch situation. Does that apply also 
to the knife? 

A: Yes, and to the priest too, as we 
shall see. According to Kees, the dead- 
ly wounds inflicted by the knife are 
really the "victim's" introduction to 
great things — to hidden knowledge and 
to immortality — so that the knife is 
really an instrument of transfigura- 
tion. 40 This is shown, I think, in the 
late Egyptian story of the contest be- 
tween Truth and Falsehood, who, of 
course, are brothers. Falsehood accuses 
Truth of stealing from him a knife 
that has miraculous powers, hails him 
into court, and has him blinded and 
banished for his supposed crime; but 
later on the knife itself turns the tables 
and inflicts the blows of death — this 
time real and final — on Falsehood, 
thereby vindicating Truth. So you see 
it is both a good knife and a bad 
knife. 4Ga 

Q: What about the wicked priest — 
is he good too? 

A: Good or bad, we couldn't do with^ 
out him. Who, in the end, turns out 
to be the real victim of this ritual 
violence? It is not Abraham but the 
priest. And that is very significant, for 
according to the Egyptian stories col- 
lected by Wainwright it was the priests 
who were always urging Pharaoh to 
sacrifice himself or a substitute, and 
in the stories in which the intended 
victim escapes it is always the priest 
himself who ends up getting sacrificed. 
This is clearly expressed in the Book 



of Abraham: when "the Lord broke 
down the altar" he also "smote the 
priest that he died" (Abr. 1:20), for he 
said, "I have come down ... to destroy 
him who hath lifted up his hand 
against thee. . . ." (Abr. 1:17. Italics 
added.) In the Jewish legends too it 
is always the priest who gets killed. 
Instead of going into sources here (that 
will come later), let us only consider 
the famous Busiris vase, a sixth-century 
hydria depicting with typical Greek 
irreverence and love of fun the climax 
of the favorite Greek Egyptian story— 
the story of King Busiris. 47 

Q: Wasn't Busiris a place? 

A: From prehistoric times down to 
the Middle Ages Busiris was the tradi- 
tional center of human sacrificial rites 
in Egypt, and it is from that that the 
mythical King Busiris gets his name. 
For it was his custom to sacrifice 
strangers on his "cruel altars," espe- 
cially Greeks. This practice began 
during a terrible drought when the 
people were starving and the king was, 
of course, held responsible. A wise man 
and priest coming from Cyprus told the 
king that if he would sacrifice a man 
every year, the land would prosper. 
That got the king off the hook, and 
his first victim was appropriately 
enough the very priest — blond, noble, 
and a stranger — who suggested the 
operation to him. 48 

Q: And it served him right, too. 

A: That was the very idea — the 
priests are asking for it. Well, Hercules 
heard about this and he didn't like it 
at all, so he went to Egypt, and being 
both foreign, blond, and of royal — 
even divine — lineage, he easily became 
a candidate for the sacrifice, allowing 
himself to be bound and put on the 
altar. But being a demigod with 
super strength, he burst his bonds at 
the last moment and turned the tables, 
and that is what we see in this clever 
parody on the Busiris Hydria: Hercules 
is making havoc among the panic- 
stricken priests while the terrified 
high priest, kneeling on the altar, is 
praying for his life. And lying bound 
and helpless on the step at the foot of 
the altar is none other than Pharaoh 
himself, identified readily by his 
uraeus headdress and his beard. Here, 
then, in an early Greek vase quite un- 
known to the world of Joseph Smith 
is another telling of the story of the 
noble captive miraculously escaping 
death on the altar of Pharaoh at the 
last moment, turning the tables and 
killing the priest. Most Greek versions 
of the story say that Hercules killed 
Pharaoh Busiris too, but some deny 
it. 40 It is the priest in the end who 
pays the price: Busiris got himself out 
of a jam by sacrificing the very priest 
who recommended such a welcome 



August 1969 



81 



substitute. There are cases in which 
the king deliberately "avenged the in- 
sult to himself" resulting from the 
escape of an intended victim "by hav- 
ing the priests put to death as sacri- 
fices" instead. 50 Waimvright has ex- 
plained how the Pharaoh who thus 
saves himself by sacrificing his priest 
(who is his proxy anyway!) fulfills 
the sacrificial requirements so that 
neither he nor any intended victim 
need suffer — with the death of the 
priest, the full price has been paid."' 1 
This device is also essential to the 
Abraham story. 

Q: How essential? 

A: As soon as "the Lord . . . smote 
the priest that he died" (Abr. 1:20), 
the tension between Abraham and 
Pharaoh was released. As we have 
often pointed out, Abraham was tak- 
ing Pharaoh's place on the altar as 
his enemy, his rival, and his "tanist." 
But suddenly another substitute for the 
king, his own high priest, "the priest 
of Pharaoh," and as such "nothing but 
a substitute for the royal person" 
(above, note 35), had died at the 
altar instead: Abraham's services were 
no longer needed, the King's honor 
had been satisfied, and no obstacle 
remained -to his paying Abraham the 
respect that he now realized (and had 
long suspected) was due him. There 
is thus no contradiction in having Fac- 
simile No. 1 followed by Facsimile No. 
3. The whole Abraham story, strange 
as it is, is quite in keeping with an- 
cient practice and tradition. 

The Four Idolatrous Gods: 

We return to our imaginary dialogue 
between a curator and two students: 

Mr. Jones: These four figures, the 
canopic jars before the altar, tie every- 
thing together. First of all, what does 
the Book of Abraham say these four 
figures are? 

Jane: "Idolatrous gods." They have 
funny names. 

Mr. Jones: Are those the names of 
the gods? Look again. 

Dick: It says here (Facsimile No. 1, 
Figure 5), "The idolatrous god of 
Elkenah." (Italics added.) 

Mr. Jones: And what does it say in 
the preceding sentence? 

Dick: ". . •. the gods of Elkenah, Lib- 
nah, Mahmackrah. . . ." 

Mr. Jones: Yes, these are the gods of 
such and such places or persons. Which 
do you think it was — places or persons? 
I'll give you a hint: in Facsimile 2, 
Figure 6, we get the same four critters. 
What are they there? 

Jane: "Represents this earth in its 
four quarters." 

Mr. Jones: So those fancy names 
probably belong to geographical re- 



gions, wouldn't you say? 

Dick: Unless the geographical re- 
gions are also people. 

Mr. Jones: Thanks for that. As far 
as the Egyptians were concerned, the 
four quarters of the earth were people. 
If the Book of Abraham wants to think 
of the four canopic jars as represent- 
ing idolatrous gods and the four 
regions at the same time, that is en- 
tirely in keeping with the way the 
Egyptians thought about it. Now 
right here in the Temple of Opet where 
we are so much at home "the genies ' 
of the four winds" enjoy a conspicuous 
display, and why are they there? The 
four winds, according to our handbook, 
head the list of more than fifty ritual 
appearances of the sacred four — it all 
began with the four winds and the four 
directions, represented as early as the 
Pyramid Texts by the four canopic 
vases. 52 

Jane: What are canopic vases? 

Mr. Jones: The four idols before the 
lion-couch in Facsimile 1 are the four 
canopic vases. As we have seen, they 
contained the insides of the person on 
the couch, precisely because they rep- 
resent the four directions. Let us recall 
the famous legend of the Jews that 
Adam was made of the four elements, 
gathered together as dust from each of 
the four quarters of the earth; that 
when one dies the elements are scat- 
tered to the four directions, and when 
one is resurrected they are brought 
together again. 53 Well, the Egyptians 
had the same idea: man was made in 
the beginning by four gods who repre- 
sented or rather, according to Brugsch, 
were the four elements. 51 Now here at 
the Opet shrine in what is called the 
Chamber of Spirits, the hero at his 
rebirth is being approached by good 
spirits bringing him good wishes and 
protection on his birthday, and at the 
head of the parade come the Gods of 
the Four Elements, sometimes eight 
of them, sometimes 14. 55 

Jane: Just like the good fairies in the 
fairy stories. 

Mr. Jones: Yes, the same tradition is 
behind both. Now the mixing up of the 
four canopic idols with the four regions 
of the universe is found in Egyptian 
funerary cult at all times, as Budge 
noted: "The four children of Horus 
played a very important part in the 
funerary work of the early dynasties; 
they originally represented the four 
supports of heaven, but very soon each 
was regarded as the god of one of the 
four quarters of the earth, and also of 
that quarter of the heavens which was 
above it." 50 Whether that is the right 
explanation or not, the thing to notice 
is that the four figures represent a 
number of concepts at once: they are 
personalities, "gods," points of the com- 



pass, and also kings and divine patrons 
of geographical regions: at the same 
time they represent the four main stars 
of the Dipper, and the four primal 
elements of which man and the uni- 
verse are made. 57 It is interesting that 
this very temple of Opet was built of 
four kinds of stone representing the 
four basic elements of which the uni- 
verse was made. 5s The canopies must 
participate at the king's resurrection: 
"Crossing the waters to the place of 
rebirth" is explained by an Egyptian 
gloss as meaning that "it is Anubis 
who is behind the vessel containing the 
organs of Osiris. . . ." 5i) Our canopic 
jars are both for preservation and resur- 
rection. "All four gods of the Cardinal 
points officiate at the baptism of 
Pharaoh," which, as we have seen, 
was quadrilateral: "what was poured 
out over the King's head," according to 
Gardiner, was "divine power . . . the 
specific power of each of the gods of 
the cardinal points." 00 We have seen 
that the Sed-festival is a coronation, 
and that according to some the climax 
of the festival was the moment when 
the king released four birds "toward the 
four cardinal points, to announce the 
coronation of the king to the four 
corners of the earth," which four 
corners, according to this authority, are 
none other than the four sons of Horus, 
represented by the four canopic jars.' 11 

Jane: They were surely crazy about 
four. 

Dick: Just like the Hop is. With them 
the four worlds are everything. 

Mr. Jones: The number four seems to 
have been a sort of obsession with 
some ancient people. - If you look up 
the four figures represented in the 
canopic jars, the first thing you will 
learn is that they are supposed to be 
the four sons of Horus, and Moret says 
the four birds released at the coronation 
are also the four sons of Horus. 03 The 
four children of Horus began as stars 
in the northern sky; ot their names 
Imsty, Hpy, Dwamutf and Qbhsnwf 
designated the four stars of the Dipper 
bowl and seem to go back to the earli- 
est times, 05 when they are also identi- 
fied with the major cosmic deities. 00 

Let's go back to our shrine at Opet, 
our "lion-couch" temple. Here in the 
central chamber between the lion- 
couch room and the coronation room, 
above each of the four doors, is a pic- 
ture with an inscription telling us 
what it is: Above the north door is a 
four-headed ram, and the inscription 
tells us that he is the North Wind in 
its capacity of giving the breath of 
eternal life to Osiris. Above the south 
door we see another ram, this time with 
four wings, and he is called the South 
Wind; above the East door a scarab 
with four wings — the East Wind, of 



82 



Improvement Era 



course — and above that west door a 
hawk with the head of a ram. 

Dick: What happened to the four 
that time? 

Mr. Jones: The ram takes care of that, 
but he belongs to Facsimile No. 2. A 
study of the four winds shows them 
taking all sorts of forms: sometimes 
the North Wind has two cows' or 
bulls' heads plus two human heads; 
sometimes it is a ram-headed man 
with two wings accompanied by a 
ram-headed hawk or else by a four- 
headed ram; sometimes it is a ram with 
four human heads; or else the South 
Wind is a four-winged lion — that is 
when it is a hot wind. Though most 
of the exotic variations belong to the 
later period, the four-winds idea itself 
goes back to early times and is men- 
tioned in the Pyramid Texts." 7 

Dick: You name it, we've got it! 
What's it all about? 

Mr. Jones: It has been found that all 
these combinations have one thing in 
common — what Professor De Wit calls 
the "quaternary principle"; he suggests 
that the whole business originally goes 
back to the four winds and probably 
started at Heliopolis. 

Dick: Naturally. 

Mr. Jones: On good evidence. Even 
one of the Joseph Smith Papyri shows 
that. 

Jane: Which one? 

Mr. Jones: Fragment No. 8 in the 
Era listing [February 1968], corre- 
sponding to Chapter 57 of the Book of 
the Dead. Professor Allen has ren- 
dered it: "His nose is open in Busiris. 
He rests in Heliopolis. ... If north 
winds come, he sits in the south; if 
south winds come, he sits in the north; 
if west winds come, he sits in the east; if 
east winds come, he sits in the west." (;s 
Heliopolis is certainly the center of 
the system, though the god is revived 
in Busiris, the place where he was put 
to death. Both motifs, execution and 
rescue, are conspicuous in the Joseph 
Smith Papyrus No. 1 — the lion-couch 
scene. 

Dick: Do the four winds resurrect 
people? 

Mr. Jones: Yes. Each wind is de- 
scribed in some inscriptions as bearing 
life both to the vegetable world and to 
Osiris — especially it brings rebirth. G " 
And to achieve this rebirth, the four 
must unite into a single entity, bring- 
ing the four elements into one body. 70 
Now with reference to our papyrus it 
is interesting that when the four thus 
come together, each one is designated 
as "the god of Such-and-such a dis- 
trict," just as our four canopic jars are 
designated by the Prophet as "the 
idolatrous god of So-and-so. . . ." 

Dick: Is So-and-so a person or a 
country or what? 



Mr. Jones: Well, we know that as 
far as the Egyptians are concerned the 
canopic jars do stand for "the earth in 
its four quarters," just as Joseph Smith 
said they did. We also know that for 
the Egyptians the cardinal points and 
the canopic figures as well definitely 
stood for four regions of the earth and 
the four races that inhabited them. 

Dick: But here they are Egyptian 
gods. Were all the four races Egyp- 
tians? 

Mr. Jones: Yes, when they knew their 
place — countless inscriptions explain 
that point of view. But we must under- 
stand how the Egyptians thought of it. 
In early times the basic division of 
Egypt was not as you might suppose. 

Dick: I know, into north and south, 
lower and upper Egypt, the red and the 
white — 

Mr. Jones: Yes. It was not divided 
that way but into the four regions. 
NSEW. The Egyptian ideogram for 
"city" is also a circle divided into four 
— each city having a "quarter" and so 
following the same plan as the uni- 
verse itself. 71 For that "quadrilateral" 
division of space does not, of course, 
stop with Egypt. The outer world was 
also divided up into four main parts. 
The concept was equally familiar to 
the Babylonians, who thought of the 
city and the land as being four-fold, 
but also thought of the four cardinal 
points of the compass as being identi- 
fied with particular nations, races, and 
colors. 7 - Remember, we are dealing 
here with a Canaanite version, in 
which the "idolatrous god of Pharaoh" 
is only one of the party; the others do 
not have to be Egyptian. 

Jane: But don't the animal heads 
make them Egyptian? 

Mr. Jones: The animal heads seem 
to have been borrowed by the Egyp- 
tians in the first place. Originally the 
canopic vases didn't have the animal 
heads; they were just plain jars. 7:! 
Scholars believe "that the therio- 
morphic vase in Egypt, as elsewhere, 
can be traced to an origin in northern 
Syria." 71 Yet the four heads are already 
canonically prescribed in the Pyramid 
Texts, so that it is suggested that their 
appearance in Egypt in the XIX 
Dynasty was actually a return to the 
old idea. 73 The idea behind the canopic 
figures was certainly familiar to 
Canaan, where, according to the rab- 
bis, the princes of the various nations 
were typified by animals, just as were 
the princes of Israel. 7,; 

Dick: But only four of them? 

Mr. Jones: That was just a conces- 
sion to the system. Thus, though from 
time immemorial the Egyptians spoke 
of the other nations as the "Nine 
Bows," they believed that at the judg- 
ment tbe four races of Mankind would 



".. .as far as the 

Egyptians are 

concerned, the canopic 

jars do stand for the 

'earth and its four 

quarters,' just as. 

Joseph Smith said 

they did" 



stand in their proper positions. 77 Re- 
cently Professor Posener has shown 
that the Egyptians named the peoples 
and countries of the world after their 
directions, and hence conceived of the 
four great races as the inhabitants of 
the four cardinal directions; to each of 
the cardinal directions they also gave 
cardinal colors — red, white, blue, and 
green. 7S They knew that there were 
many countries, of course, but they 
insisted on fitting everything into the 
system — a sort of cosmic plan that 
seems to have hypnotized many ancient 
people. 79 

Dick: So nobody had to borrow from 
anybody. 

Mr. Jones: So the various ideas could 
easily meet and fuse — -in Canaan, espe- 
cially, the newly found Brooklyn 
Papyrus shows the people familiar 
with the same ideas: "The invoking of 
four Babylonian deities is certainly evi- 
dence of the presence of a Babylonian 
cult in this area." The four gods in 
question happen to be Bel, Nabu, 
Shamash, and Nergal, so corresponding 
closely to the four great gods of the 
Egyptian four directions. Just as we 
find in the secret place of resurrection 
in Egyptian temples a special central 
room in which the four winds were 
depicted, so a newly discovered Assyrian 
text tells of a "high chamber" within 
a Ziggurat in which were found the 
images of the four winds, each being 
related to one of the four waters. S1 A 
Hyksos tomb at Gaza, supplying a link 
between Egypt and Asia in these things, 
contains four chambers in each of the 
four directions, with each containing 
a human sacrifice. 8 - The Mandaeans 
supply another link, and they have the 



August 1969 



83 



"All we can do here is to show 

that the name El-kenah, far from being 

an absurdity, is a very promising 



candidate for research..." 



same "quadrilateral" obsession as the 
Egyptians and Babylonians: their four 
rulers of the underworld, Krun, Shdum, 
'Ur, and Gaf, represent the soft parts 
and effusions of the body, just as the 
eanopic jars do. S3 Still another link is 
provided by a coffin from the Land of 
Goshen, depicting the four sons of 
Horus, entirely human, raising their 
arms in praise or support beneath a 
lion-couch on which the king lies 
prone, i.e. in the act of arising, while 
six royal crowns await him before the 
couch and behind the four figures are 
four times three arrows and the num- 
ber 400. The location as well as the 
motifs are reminders of the four-and- 
twelve obsession of ancient Israel.* 14 
A literary link between Egypt and 
Canaan is Philo of Byblos, who says 
that the god Bethel-Baityl was the sec- 
ond of four brothers, begotten by 
heaven and earth: El, Baityl, Dagon, 
and Atlas. Sla A recent study of these 
concludes that three of them were 
actually Phoenician-Palestinian divin- 
ities, i.e., idolatrous gods of the Ca- 
naanites, while the fourth, Atlas, 
represents an Egyptian deity who "de- 
scends as a lion into his tomb." S4b 

Jane: But didn't Atlas hold up the 
world? 

Mr. Jones: Exactly. And Baetyl means 
pillar— they were pillars of heaven. 
The Mesopotamian and Egyptian ideas 
met in Canaan: "The pharaohs also 
served Syrian gods," writes S. Morenz, 
"who made their countries tributary to 
the Egyptian kings. Gods from Syria 
. . . were venerated in Egypt . . . also in 
settlements of immigrants." 85 

Dick: So it worked both ways. 

Mr. Jones: Yes. The Egyptians, "very 
tolerant at all times toward strange 
gods . . . undertook to adopt those of 
Byblos," while the Syrians called their 
solar god Re, just like the Egyptians, 
giving him special epithets to keep 
from confusing him with the Egyptian 
Re. so A text from Ras Shamra baffled 
everybody for a while until it was 
realized that it was composed in the 
manner of an Egyptian coronation 
ode in honor of "the Egyptian overlord 
of Ugarit." S7 And while "Egyptian 



officials and soldiers in the cities of 
Palestine and Syria" addressed the local 
gods "with the same confidence as they 
displayed towards their own home 
gods," Asiatics living in Egypt wor- 
shiped their own Asiatic gods, especially 
the lady Astarte in the Hittite quarter 
of Memphis. S8 In fact, "it became the 
fashion among the Egyptians them- 
selves to imitate Asiatic customs," and 
in the worship of foreign gods 
"the Pharaohs themselves took the 
lead. . . ," so A Memphite papyrus lists 
the names of the Memphite gods and 
right along with them the Canaanitish 
gods with their outlandish names. 00 So 
we should not be too surprised by the 
strange un-Egyptian but patently Se- 
mitic names of our four idolatrous gods; 
Egyptian idols often received such 
Asiatic names, though interestingly 
enough the reverse is not true: "While 
the Egyptians so readily accepted Se- 
mitic deities into their midst," wrote 
Cerny, "there is no sign that their 
subjects in Palestine and Syria showed 
the same attitude towards the Egyptian 
gods." 91 Consistent with this arrange- 
ment, "the idolatrous god of Pharaoh" 
appears among the other idolatrous 
gods as a sort of fifth wheel, tolerated 
because he must be — Pharaoh is call- 
ing the tune in Asia at the moment 
and must he shown due respect, but 
at best the Egyptians intrude on the 
local rites with "a god like unto the 
god of Pharaoh." Fortunately, this 
complicated theme is the subject of a 
recent book, by R. Stadclmann, who 
assures us that the Egyptians believed, 
like everybody else, that throughout 
the Near East "the native gods were 
the mightiest, and that without their 
help and support Pharaoh could not 
rule these lands." 02 This would explain 
the persistence of "the idolatrous god" 
of this or that region along with the 
sovereign position of "the idolatrous 
god of Pharaoh" as depicted in the 
Book of Abraham. 

Dick: Even if the Egyptians had 
conquered them? 

Mr. Jones: That is just the point; it 
was a fundamental belief, and one 
consistently overlooked by scholars, ac- 



cording to Stadelmann, that every god 
had an inalienable right to his. -own 
territory; hence, without the recogni- 
tion and approval of the immemorial 
local divinity of a region "no power 
was legal": Pharaoh himself rules 
everywhere in Canaan only by permis- 
sion and with the aid of the local 
Landsgott, who is never destroyed or 
even suppressed, though often he be- 
comes quickly Egyptianized. 0:i Please 
note that the four idolatrous gods of 
Facsimile No. 1, though having Ca- 
naanite names, appear in conven- 
tional Egyptian dress— that, to judge 
by other examples, was quite a correct 
procedure. 91 Look now at this picture 
of the camp of Rameses II in Canaan: 
here before a shrine in the midst of the 
camp, a shrine that looks very much 
as the Ark of the Covenant must have 
looked when the Israelites brought it 
out of Egypt, we see men of five dif- 
ferent races praying, and over here 
the king himself is seen bringing his 
captives before another shrine in which 
four gods are sitting. 05 Do those four 
gods look familiar? Look at their 
heads! 

Jane: One has a hawk's head, and 
one is human. 

Mr. Jones: Notice that it happens to 
be the head of Rameses himself. 

Dick: But the others are a lion and 
an ape — at least it could be an ape. 

Mr. Jones: Well, we have seen that 
the heads could change, though the 
significance of the four figures remains 
the same. Here Pharaoh's enemies in 
Palestine are duly submitting to them 
— and him. The Egyptian and Asiatic 
meet and mingle in Palestine and 
Syria from early times: at Byblos, for 
example, we find our familiar Egyptian 
lions and lotuses adorning royal cof- 
fins and thrones, but with a very strong 
Asiatic intermixture. 00 The idols of 
Canaan tend to become stereotyped, 
though retaining a great variety of 
names. 07 

Dick: Do you mean that all they had 
to do to change the identity of an idol 
was to change its name? 

Mr. Jones: The situation seems to 
have been remarkably fluid, to judge 
by Albrecht Alt's studies. According to 
him the strange gods were constantly 
coming and going, especially in the 
desert. A certain idol would pass for 
a time as "the god of So-and-so," 
So-and-so being the name of the man 
who introduced the cult of that god 
into an area. 08 The Egyptian expres- 
sions "god of Ramesses" and "such- 
and-such god of Ramesses" have long- 
puzzled scholars; Montet has suggested 
that "god of Ramesses" has a geographi- 
cal significance, and the expression 
definitely belongs to the overlapping 
areas of Egypt and Canaan. 088 



84 



Improvement Era 



Dick: Why couldn't they just call 
the god by his own name? 

Mr. Jones: Perhaps because his name 
was secret: according to a very wide- 
spread belief in the East, to know the 
name of a god or a demon gave one a 
measure of control over him. But what- 
ever the reason, it is an interesting fact 
that when an idol is called "the god 
of So-and-so" in an inscription, he is 
never designated by a proper name of 
his own." 

Dick: The idols in the camp of 
Rameses would certainly explain how 
the four canopic figures got to be 
known in Palestine. 

Mr. Jones: It shows that they were 
known, but not necessarily how. After 
all, it has been suggested, as we have 
seen, that the four canopic figures were 
Syrian to begin with. The Jews had 
their own four figures, whether the evil 
spirits ruling the four winds and sea- 
sons—the four "Devil-Mothers," 100 or 
the primodial Tohu, Bohu, Khoek, and 
Ruach, which correspond exactly to 
the Egyptian Nw, Hehw, Kekw, and 
Shw, indicating to Professor Jequier 
that the writer of Genesis had access 
to the very ancient Hermopolitan 
records. 101 

Jane: In seminary we learned about 
the four beasts in Daniel (7:2-8);. they 
were winds too, and one was a winged 
lion. 

Dick: And in Revelation 7:1 it says, 
"And after these things I saw four 
angels standing on the four corners of 
the earth, holding the four winds of 
the earth. . . ." Isn't this just the same 
as the Egyptian canopic idea? 

Mr. Jones (impressed) : A. Grenfell 
noted long ago that the imagery of the 
four angels in Revelation is the same 
as that of the Egyptian canopic jars, 
so you needn't be so smart."" 1 - And 
what about the strange heads? 

Dick: Oh, they are there, too! ". . . 
and in the midst of the throne, and 
round about the throne, were four 
beasts full of eyes [looking] before 
and behind." 

Jane: They were like a lion, a calf, 
an eagle, with one having the face of 
a man. (Rev. 4:6-7.) 

Mr. Jones (bemused) : And to think 
that in Israel today kids your age 
actually do talk like that. But only- 
two of the heads are canopies, please 
note — the man's and the eagle's. 

Dick: Don't you remember that in 
some temples the ape's and the jackal's 
heads were replaced by those of an ox 
and a ram? 

Jane: Or a beetle's, for that matter. 

Dick: Only the human head and the 
bird's head remain unchanged all the 
time. Also, John is describing a throne 
scene, in which lions are a "must." 

Mr. Jones: Yes, and the Egyptians 



usually represented the South by a lion 
and the North by a head of a bull or 
a cow. So the four heads in John's 
vision are actually the standard Egyp- 
tian symbols of the four directions. So 
our four "idolatrous gods" which 
"represent the earth in its four quar- 
ters" aren't so far from the Bible after 
all! 

Dick: But what about their fancy 
names? They aren't Egyptian and they 
aren't found in the Bible either. 

Mr. Jones: Ah, but they are found 
elsewhere; that is the point. Let us 
take them in order. First, the hawk- 
headed canopic, "the idolatrous god of 
Elkenah." We learn in Abraham 1:7 
that "the priest of Elkenah was also 
the priest ' of Pharaoh" — one priest 
serving two masters: since one of the 
masters was a king, the other may also 
have been. Bearing in mind that in 
the common expression "god of So-and- 
so" the So-and-so is the name of the 
king or chieftain who established the 
idol's worship in a district, I would 
say that Elkenah was a man — but a 
man with a thcophoric name. 

Jane: What's that? 

Mr. Jones: It's the name of a person 
made by combining the name of a 
god with some other element — like 
Uriah or Jezebel. In Palestine and 
Syria it is common to find such names 
combining Egyptian and west Semitic 
elements. Well, one of the favorite 
words of the Egyptians in building 
such names was qen- or qeni (usually 
written with a "k" with a dot under 
it), which means "mighty," "power- 
ful," or "brave." This element is 
"often used in the first names of various 
kings," according to the Berlin Dic- 
tionary (V, 42), and is especially appro- 
priate for the conquerors of foreign 
lands. A typical example is the name 
Amon-qen(i) or Qen(i)-Amon (V, 41), 
meaning "Amon is mighty." According 
to the dictionary (V,- 45), it is not 
possible to distinguish the forms grit, 
qni, qnw as to meaning, and the 
Egyptians often leave. the final vowel 
or consonant unwritten. The "q" here 
represents a very hard "k" sound, 
which is impossible to express in Eng- 
lish, and I find it most interesting that 
Joseph Smith sometimes spelled Elken- 
ah with a double kk — a very odd and 
unusual spelling by all accounts, which 
justifies us in equating ken with qen. 
If we go back to the great camp scene 
of Rameses II, we find that among the 
four canopic figures in the shrine the 
hawk is represented as saying to the 
king: "I give thee power (qn.t) against 
the Southland, victory against the 
North. ... I give thee the lands of the 
earth. " in:; As a conqueror Rameses was, 
we might say, qen-conscious, and since 
qen-i, -&, -t was commonly used "as an 



appendage of vague and general sig- 
nificance to names of gods, designa- 
tions of kings, and the like" (V, 42), it- 
is a natural for the name of an idol; 
and since it was common in Palestine 
and Syria to combine Egyptian and 
Canaanitish elements in the same 
names, nothing could be more in order 
than to call an idol El-kenah, meaning 
"the god EI is mighty." Canaan in 
Abraham's day was full of what E. 
MacLaurin calls "synthesized titles," 
and he calls special attention to the 
name El-qanna. 103a The commonest 
element in such names was some word 
for "strong" or "mighty" coupled with 
the name of the god: Thus El Elyon or 
Baal Aleyan means that the god is 
"victorious," a "powerful hero." ln:il> 
Equally common is the Egyptian fen. or 
hny, and the well-attested name kny-ra 
or Ra-qni is the exact equivalent of 
El-Kenah, the Egyptians being much 
interested in identifying their Ra with 
the Caananite El. 103c 

Dick: But what about the ah ending? 

Mr. Jones: It is a characteristic of 
Canaanite proper names written in 
their Egyptian form. Thus the well- 
known name Horan is written in Egyp- 
tian Hwrwnana, a personal name, and 
as a place name it is Hrwn-ah. 10 ' 1 The 
name Ba'al itself is often written in 
Egyptian with final -r instead of -I, 
and sometimes the -r is omitted to 
give Ba'ah. 10 "' This shift between final 
-r and -ah is interesting because Joseph 
Smith himself hesitates between El- 
kenah and Elkkener. We shall con- 
sider this r- trouble when we get to 
some other names. Meanwhile, here 
is a suggestive report by Bar Hehraeus 
that "in the days of Tarh"— that is, of 
Abraham's father, Terah — "the Egyp- 
tians learned Chaldaeism." 

Dick: Rather a neat point for the 
Book of Abraham, I would say — hav- 
ing the Egyptians go Chaldaean in the 
days of Abraham, or rather of his 
father. 

Mr. Jones: True, but that is only in- 
cidental to the main point, which 
is that in adopting Chaldaeism the 
Egyptians of Abraham's day "made an 
image of gold in honor of Kinos, 
the idol." 3011 Bar Hebraeus has given the 
name its Greek form as found in his 
sources, but from this it would appear 
that in their "Chaldaean" sphere the 
Egyptians really did honor an idol 
named Kenah or something very like 
it. Whatever the name meant, it was 
there. 

Dicfe: Could it designates region— 
El-kenah, "the god of Kenah," or 
something like that? 

Mr. Jones: That is a distinct possi- 
bility, in view of the latest study by 
Father R. de Vaux. According to him, 
the land of Canaan is designated in 



August 1969 



85 



the Amarna Letters as the land of 
Kinahni or Kinahhi. 107 The Amarna 
Letters, you may recall, were written 
in Babylonian cuneiform but dis- 
covered in the library of a famous 
Pharaoh. 

Dick: What happened to the second 
"n" in Canaan? 

Mr. Jones: Most of the time it is 
missing. At Ras Shamra, a Canaanit- 
ish library contemporary with the 
Amarna Letters, the name is written 
Kinahi, and a Canaanite is called a 
kinahaiu.' 10 ' 7 A letter of Ramses II calls 
Canaan Kinabhi, though the Egyptians 
prefer Kn'n. But in the Amarna Let- 
ters the ain turns into rough "h" and 
the final "n" is dropped. The form 
Kinahi, found both at Ras Shamra and 
on Cyprus, was once wrongly thought 
to be Human. 307 The point is that all 
over the Egyptian-Syro-Palestinian 
area Kinah was a common designation 
for Canaan, and the name El-kenah 
could certainly mean "God of Kenah" 
or Canaan. But this suggests a third 
possibility. It so happens that each of 
the four canopic jars represented not 
only one of the four winds or four 
directions of the compass, but also that 
particular part of the inhabited world 
which lay in that particular direction. 
It also happens that the hawk-headed 
canopic figure always stood for the 
lands to the east. 

Jane: East of what? 

Mr. Jones: Of Heliopolis, in all prob- 
ability, since some scholars hold that 
the canopic idea originated there,' and 
the Egyptians themselves always re- 
garded it as the exact center of the 
world, the place of the beginning, 
from which life went forth in all 
directions to fill the world. 108 The 
four birds went forth .from there to 
announce the king's coronation to 
"the Nomads of Nubia" in the south, 
the Libyans of the west, and the 
bedouins of Asia, but the fourth nation 
is Egypt. 109 The king claims the earth 
"South to the wind, North to the sea, 
East to the Lands of the Gods, and 
West to the limits of the sun's jour- 
ney." 110 There is some confusion here 
because since prehistoric times the 
Pharaohs claimed Sinai as part of 
Egypt, but beyond that everything to 
the east was Kenite country. The 
Kenites were those people "concerning 
whose territory a covenant was made 
with Abraham, and who have not yet 
been conquered," that is, of all the 
vast area described as Abraham's her- 
itage in the Genesis Apocryphon. 111 
The Rabbis identified Kenite country 
with the deserts stretching all the way 
from the southern tip of Arabia to Asia 
Minor. 112 In the prophecies of the last 
days the Kenites are identified with the 
Ishmaelites, 113 and Nelson Glueck 



equated them to the Rechabites, the 
ancient secretaries of the Arabian 
deserts. 1 " Jethro was called "the Ken- 
ite," and his Midianite countrymen 
called themselves the Kenim. 115 Some 
have seen in these latter the beni Kain, 
or sons of Cain, traveling smiths and 
metal casters, with their wandering 
habits and their blackened faces. 11 ' 1 
According to H. Seebass, the Kenites 
provide the link "between the Patri- 
archal period and the desert period" of 
Israel, their original home being the 
Negev. 117 Whatever else they are, the 
Kenites are from the Egyptian point 
of view the people to the east, and 
since the canopic hawk represents the 
East, its name El-kenah might well 
refer to the god of an eastern region or 
people. 

Dick: So we have three choices. 
Doesn't that leave us up in the air? 

Mr. Jones: No more than students of 
the Canaanites have always been. 
There is still no agreement on the 
meanings of the names Canaan, Kenite, 



and how they are related. Remember, 
our business is not to provide final 
answers — we do not close doors, but 
open them. All we can do here is to 
show that the name El-kenah, far from 
being an absurdity, is a very promising 
candidate for research. Before we go 
any further, it would be well to make 
a chart to show these four canopic 
idols in their symbolic perspective. The 
possible variations on the chart will 
remind us how very fluid the interpre- 
tation of things still is, and how very 
little is really known about any of 
this business 118 (see chart below). 
Notice that in Egyptian thinking these 
figures are gods, races, nations, direc- 
tions of the compass, and parts of the 
body all at once; it is the same free- 
wheeling type of interpretation we find 
in the Pearl of Great Price. Of course 
when we think in cosmic terms the four 
canopies are stars — the four stars of the 
bowl of the Big Dipper, spirits that 
"carry Osiris in the procession" to 
heaven. 11 " 



Num- 
ber 




Figure 


Egyptian 
Name 


Parts of 
the Body 


Direc- 
tion 


People 


Pearl of 
Great Price 

Name 


5 


hawk 


Duamutef 


stomach 


east 


Desert People ('Amu) 


Elkenah 
(Elkkener) 


6 


jackal 


Kebhsenef 


intestines 


west 


Libya (Temhiland) 


Libnah 


7 


ape 


Hapi 


lungs 


north 


Palestine & Syria 
(Retjnu) 


Mahmackrah 


8 


human 


Imset 


liver 


south 


Nubia (Nhsy) 


Korash 
(Koash) 



(To be continued) 
FOOTNOTES 



'A. De Buck, in Journal of Egyptian Archae- 
ology, Vol. 35 (1949), p. 87. The title is that 
given by T. G. Allen, The Egyptian Book of 
the Dead (University of Chicago, 1960), p. 
150. Budge calls it "The Chapter of Making 
Transformation into a Divine Falcon." 

-E. A. W. Budge, The Papyrus of Ani (New 
York, 1913), Vol. 2, p. 535. 

• ! De Buck, op. cit., pp. 87-97; the text is in 
his Coffin Texts, IV, 68-86. 

4 E. Drioton, in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Vol. 
10 (1953), p. 171; H. Brunner, in Ztschr. de.r 
Dt. Morgenland. Ges., Vol. 3 (1961), p. 445. 

"If one underlines all passages in the Naville 
text of Book of the Dead 78 ( Das aegypt. 
Todtenbuch [Berlin, 1886], pp. 164ff) which 
are identical with those in Coffin Text 312, 
more than four-fifths of the material will be 
found to be the same in both texts. 

°De Buck, op. cit. 

"J. A. Wilson, in Dialogue, Vol. 3 ( Summer 
1968), pp. 67-88. Thus it is easier to assem- 
ble a jigsaw puzzle even when many pieces are 
missing if one has a completed sketch before 
one than it is to put together a complete set of 
pieces without a guide to follow. 

6 De Buck discusses the merits of D. Gunn's 
assertion that it is sufficient for the student to 
confine himself to the text at hand without ref- 
erence to what form it may have had in the 
remote past— a pointed commentary on the will- 
ful myopia of scholarship. Ibid., p. 87. 

"De Buck, op. cit., p. 88. 

w Ibid„ p. 89. 

"Drioton, op. cit., p. 168. 

^Ibid., p. 171. 

"Brunner, op. cit. (note 4 above), p. 442. 



^Ibid., p. 445. 

^Drioton, op. cit., p. 167. 

"•Ibid., p. 171. 

,7 Line 68c, rendered "govern for me" ( Drio- 
ton), "watch over me" (Brunner), and "clear 
my ways" (De Buck), the common idea being 
"relieve me from my helplessness!" 

18 T. G. Allen, Eg. Book of the Dead, pp. 
160f, PI. XXVI. Of course there is always the 
possibility that the vignette has nothing to 
do with the text it accompanies. 

10 Brunner, op. cit., p. 443. 

20 Ibid., p. 440. De Buck renders hwi as 
"Command," while Drioton, p. 169, para- 
phrases the passage: "He must go and ask for 
a decision from the supreme Lord." 

-'Brunner, pp. 442, 444. 

-nbid., p. 442. 

2;J Drioton, op. cit., p. 167. 

■^Ibid., p. 169; T. G. Allen, B.D., p. 151. 
It reminds one very much of the all-important 
turban in the Mandaean initiations: "Sam- 
Haije sent me with the turban of radiance 
to be a garment for the King so that the Uthras 
might shine through him." Mand. Johannesbuch 
(Lidzbarski), p. 206; Ginza, pp. 191f, 194. 

-This expression has caused all the trans- 
lators trouble; two of them take it as a mistake, 
while Drioton (p. 169) says it refers to some 
lost episode of the drama. That it is not a 
mistake in Ms. B2Bo, where it occurs twice 
(87c, e), should be apparent when one con- 
siders that Egyptian scribes in a hurry do not 
go out of their way to dig up forgotten archaic 
ideograms and words when modern alternatives 
are at their disposal. Here the expression is 
"through the partition" ( Wbrterbuch IV, 14, 



86 



Improvement Era 



4), and the ideogram represents the archaic 
door or screen made of rushes and rolled up 
from the bottom. One is also reminded of the 
"reed wall" through which God was said to 
have spoken to Utnapishtim, the Babylonian 
Noah, warning him of the Flood and giving 
him the instructions necessary for his escape 
from it. 

-°So Drioton, p. 171. 

-"Bninner, p. 442. 

- 8 Such as this writer discussed long ago in 
the Classical Journal, Vol. 40 (1945), pp. 515- 

43. 

o « * * 

3i C. J. Bleeker, in Nttmcn, Vol. 11 (1964), 
p. 80. 

35 E. Drioton & J. Vandier, L'Egypt, p. 90. 

;ili P. Derchain, Rites Egyptiens, I, 40, 52. 

;l7 He wears the mask both as executioner and 
healer, Appian, Bell, civ., IV, 47, Artemidorus, 
Onirocrit., V, 92, in Hopfner, Pontes, p. 359; 
Apuleius, Metam. XI, 11. 

^H. Altcnmueller, in Chron. d'Egypte, Vol. 
42 (1967), p. 81. 

^Drioton & Vandier, op. cit., p. 94. 

in H. Nibley, in BYU Studies, Autumn 1968, 
pp. 81-85. 

■"Derchain, op. cit., I, 52. 

42 H. Junker, Die Stundenwachcn in den 
Osirismysterien (Vienna, 1910), p. 2; G. Je- 
quier, in Sphinx, Vol. 14 (1911), p. 179. 

"H. Mueller, in Mitt, des dt. Inst, der Alter- 
tumskundc zu Kairo, Vol. 7 (1937), p. 59. 

"Ibid., pp. 59ff. 

* S P. T. v. Recklinghausen, in Aeg. Ztschr., 
Vol. 63 (1928), p. 15; M. de Rochemonteix, in 
Bibliothcque Egyptologiquc, Vol. 3 (1894), pp. 
183-85, 248: H. Schacfer, Von aegyptischer 
Kunst (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1963), pp. 
308-10. 

^•"Lebensmiidc, 79-80, cit. A. Gardiner, Eg. 
Gram., p. 317. 

isbin p yr . Text No. 674 (1999) "they who 
are before Thoth are slaughtered with the knife 
belonging to Seth." For the type of knife, E. 
Massoulard, Prehistoire et Protohistoire d'Egypte 
(Paris, 1949), Plates xliii, lix, lx. 

■"'H. Kees, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 78 (1942), 
pp. 46f. 

ir,n Thc Blinding of Truth by Falsehood, in A. 
Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Stories ( Brussels, 
1932), pp. 30-36. There is a remarkable 
parallel to this in the Norse Folk-tale of True 
and Untrue, No. 1 in G. W. Dasent's Popular 
Tales from the Norse (Edinburgh, 1888), pp. 
1-7. 

^Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 1 (Plates), 
p. 382f. 

4S For a complete bibliography of the Classical 
sources, Th. Hopfner, Pontes Hist. Relig. 
Aegypt., p. 821. 

4i> Hopfner, loc. cit., lists 15 sources that have 
Hercules put Busiris to death and two that 
deny it. Three writers claim that the Busiris 
story is only a mythical presentation of the 
rough treatment afforded strangers in Egypt. 

50 G. A. Wainwright, The Sky-Religion in 
Egypt, p. 63. 

flbid., pp. 60, 62; Herodot., II, 139. 

a -C. De Wit, in Chroniques d'Egypte, Vol. 
32 (1957), pp. 35-37. 

S3 L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 1, 
p. 54; Vol. 5, pp. 71f, with sources; M. J. bin 
Gorion, Die Sagen der Judcn, I, 101; also a 
popular early Christian concept, Simeon of Ge- 
sir, Potter's Songs, in Oriens Christianus, Vol. 3 
(1913), p. 225. 

M M. Chassinat, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 38 (1916), 
pp. 39f. 

=%!. de Rochemonteix, in Bibl. Egyptol., Vol. 
3, p. 249. 

■" ,(i E. A. W. Budge, Egyptian Magic, p. 90. 

•"'G. Thausing, in Mitt, Dt. Inst. Arch, zu 
Kairo, Vol. 8 (1939), pp. 54, 60. On a shrine 
from Medinet Habu four kings supporting the 
sky stand on pillars of heaven as depicted in 
Joseph Smith Papyri, No. 1. Medinet Halm, 
Vol. 4, PL 229, cf. 217. The idea of the four 
as stars survives in Cyprian's teaching, de Sina 
et Sion in Migne, Patrologia Latino, Vol. 4, Col. 
994, that Adam's name is taken from the 
initials of four stars that God placed in each 
of the cardinal points. 

^A. Varille, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 53, p. 90. 

50 J. Baillet, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 22 (1900). 
p. 193. 

°°A. Gardiner, in Jul. Eg. Arch., Vol. 36 
(1950), pp. 10-12. 

01 De Wit, op. cit., pp. 37f. 

oi At the end of the Sed festival the order 
"Silence" was repeated 4 times, the 4 arrows 
were shot, the king sat on 4 thrones, one facing 
each direction, Frankfort, Kingship and the 
Gods, p. 88. When the King is ordered by 



Osiris to appear as the second Horus "the 4 
spirits of Heliopolis" write his name (Pyr. Text 
No. 467), and when Osiris comes out of heaven 
"the 4 pure poles are set up for him" ( Pyr. 
Text No. 303). Only two poles (the solstices) 
are set up for Re, but they are set up 4 times 
(Pyr. Text Nos. 263, 264). In the purification 
rite the Smn priest goes around the statue 4 
times, called shenen (A. Moret, Culte Pharaon- 
ique, p. 202, B.D. 34:2). In a mimic human 
sacrifice 4 red animals were slain at a round 
hole representing the mouth of the underworld, 
like the "mundus" or "orcus mundi" in the 
center of Roma quadrata ( G. Lefebure, in Bibl. 
Egyptol., Vol. 36, p. 288). In taking possession 
at his coronation the Pharaoh would "pass 
through the land, touching the 4 sides. . . . He 
ran across the ocean and the 4 sides of heav- 
en . . ." (H. Kees, in Aeg. Ztscher., Vol. 52, 
pp. 68ff, from an inscription in Edfu). Not 
only power but danger comes from the four 
directions, "the enemies that converge from the 
4 cardinal regions of the world" ( J. Monnet, in 
Rev. d'Egyptologie, Vol. 8 [1951], p. 152). 
"SA. Moret, Culte Pharaoniquc, pp. 27f. 
Gi H. Grapow, Totenbuch, Kap. 17, p. 43. 
^'G. Thausing, op. cit., pp. 52f; Pyramid 
Text No. 573 (1483). 

■ ^A very old tradition has Geb sitting on the 
throne of the universe "at the place of the 4 
crocodiles, Sobak-Ra, Shu, Geb, Osiris-Ra," as 
they planned the creation of the world, G. 
Goyon, in Kemi, Vol. 6 (1936), pp. 37f. 
«De Wit, op. cit., p. 29. 

^Ibid., p. 39. The Improvement Era, Febru- 
ary 1968, p. 40g; translated by Prof. J. A. Wil- 
son, in Dialogue, Summer 1968, p. 75. 
(wp e Wit, op. cit., p. 25. 

~' ] Ibid„ p. 31, citing a hymn to Khum, in 
which the 4 gods must come together and 
unite into one to give eternal life to Osiris. 

T1 K. Sethe, Uebers. u. Kommentar z. d. Pyra- 
midentextcn, I, 96. 

"-P. Neugebauer, in Archie fur Orientfor- 
schung, Vol. 7 (1931-2), pp. 269-71. 

73 K. Sethe, Zur Gesch. der Einhalsamierung 
(Preuss. Akad. Sitz. her., 1934), p. 217. 

™S. R. K. Glanville, in Jnl. Eg. Arch., Vol. 
12 (1926), p. 57. 

■A. Rusch, Die Entwicklung der Himmels- 
gocttin Nut zu einer Gotthcit (Leipzig, 1922), 
p. 46. 

T0 L. Cohn, in Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 
10 (1898), pp. 316f. 

77 E. Lefebure, in Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl. 
Archaeoh, Vol. 4 (1875), pp. 44-48. 

TS G. Posener, in Goettingcr Nachrichten, 
1965, No. 2, pp. 76f. Pyr. Text No. 457ff 
invokes "the four gods of the four regions who 
make their vigilant rounds of the four parts of 
the earth," which Prof. Moret equates with the 
4 qibratu of the Cuneiform texts. The Egyptian 
underworld is depicted as a pool of fire with a 
cynocephalus ape guarding each of the four 
sides. A. Moret, Lc Jugcment du Roi Mart . . . 
(Melun, 1922), pp. 22, 26; Book of the Dead, 
Ch. 125. Up above, the 4 sons of Horus open 
and close the 4 gates of heaven, (bid., p. 13, 
and Pyr. Text No. 688 (2078). 

7a A fairly recent bibliography of works rele- 
vant to this subect may be found in our foot- 
notes in Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 19 
(1966), pp. 602-7. See also W. Mueller, Die 
heitige Stadt (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1961). 
sft E. G. Kraeling, The Brooklyn Museum Ara- 
maic Papyri (1953), p. 86; cf. C. De Wit, 
op, cit., p. 31. 

8l J, Nougayrol, in Revue d'Assyriologie, Vol. 
60 (1966), pp. 72-74. 

S -Z. Mayani, Lcs Hyksos et le Monde de la 
Bible (Paris: Payot, 1956), p. 92, Fig. 17. 

^E. Drawer, The 1012 Questions (Berlin, 
1960), p. 240. The Mandaeans also had the 
idea that "the four winds . . . are four supports 
which hold up the skies," ibid., p. 213. To the 
Egyptian mind "the intestines were necessary 
for digestion over which the four sons of Horus 
watched and whose four heads are on canopic 
jars," J. Zandee, in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Vol. 
19 (1962), p. 39. The concept goes back to 
prehistoric times, according to Sethe, Balsa- 
micrung, p. 220, though Rusch, Nut, p. 45, 
holds that the original function of the four 
canopic figures was to guard against hunger. 

SI E. Naville, The Shrine of Soft el-IIcnnch & 
the Land of Goshen (London, 1885), PI. 6. 
"*" Kraeling, op. cit., p. 89. 
^'•D. M. duBuisson, in Rev. de VHist. des 
Religions, Vol. 169 (1966), pp. 36ff, 44, 48. 
• S "S. Morenz, Aegyptischc Religion, pp. 247f. 
S0 P. Montet, Lc Drame d'Avaris (Paris, 1941), 
p. 24. 

8T T, H. Gaster, in Egyptian Religion, Vol. 3 
(1934), pp. 95ff. 



**J. Cerny, Ancient Egyptian Religion, pp. 
126-27. 

*>Ibid., p. 126. 

,M lbid„ p. 127, and W. F. Petrie, Religious 
Life in Ancient Egypt, pp. 58f. 

ul Cerny, p. 138. 

°-R. Stadelmann, Syrisch-Palaestinensische 
Gottheiten in Aegypten (Leiden: Brill, 1967), 
p. 23. 

™Ibid., pp. 17-18. 

!l! The classic example is the Lady of Byblos, 
who though appearing in completely Egyptian 
dress and insignia retains none-the-less her old 
non-Egyptian name and personality. Ibid., p. 
11. 

"•">W. Wreszinski, Atlas, II, Pt. iii, Taf. 169, 
170, 179f. 

!IB N. Aime-Giron, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 42 
(1943), pp. 290, 294, with many illustrations. 

!IT E. Kraeling, in Jnl. of Near Eastern Studies, 
Vol. 6 (1947), pp. 201-8. 

"SA. Alt, Essays on Old Testament History 
and Religion (Oxford, 1966), pp. 37-39. 

0Sa B. Couroyer, in Revue Biblique, Vol. 61 
(1954), pp. 108-9. 

™Alt., p. 34. 

100 The four Sons of Horus are matched by 
the four evil murderers of Osiris, K. Sethe, 
Gesch. der Einbalsamicrung, p. 214, correspon- 
ding to the four fevers matching the four 
humors in man, Hippocrates, De Nat. Horn., 
21: 359f, 369. These correspond to the four 
Devil-Mothers ruling or misruling the seasons, 
M. J. bin Gorion, Sagen der Juden, I, 337. 
Like the Egyptians, the Jews also taught that 
mankind was saved from destruction by the 
South-wind by a falcon which came and spread 
out its protecting wings. Ibid., I, 54. 

W1 G. Jequier, Considerations stir les Religs. 
Egs., pp. 155f. 

102 A. Grenfell, in The Monist, Vol. 16 ( 1906), 
pp. 184-92. 

ira Above, note 95. 

103fL E. MacLaurin, in Journal of Religious His- 
tory, Vol. 2, p. 286; though the expression El 
Qanna appears in the Old Testament, only the 
Canaanitish records show it to be the proper 
name of a local idol. 

™* b Ibid., p. 284. 

103c H. Ranke, Aegyptisch Pcrsonncn namen, 
I, 220, No. 5; p. 335, No. 2, 7-10, 15, 18, 821. 

1<M Stadelmann, op. cit., p. 86. 

™->Ibid., p. 13. 

lw Bar Hebraeus, Chronology, I, 9. (Trsl. 
E. A. W. Budge, Oxford, 1932.) 

™ T R. de Vaux, in Jnl. Amcr. Or. Soc, Vol. 88 
(1968), pp. 23f. 

l0s See above, note 68. 

™ n S. Schott, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95 (1968), 
pp. 58f. 

110 Jbirf.. p. 60. 

1U H. Klein, The Code of Maimonidcs, Bk. XI 
(Yale University Press, 1954), p. 219. 

^-Midrash Rob., Gen. 44:23. 

m B. Lewis, in Bull, of the Oriental and 
African School, Vol. 13 (1949), pp. 312f. 

1U N. Glueck, in Palestine Exploration Quar- 
terly, 1940, pp. 22-24. 

"^Z. Mayani, Lcs Hyksos ct le Monde de la 
Bible, p. 184; R. Eisler, Die Kcnitischen Wei- 
hinschriften der Hyksoszeit (Freiburg, 1919), 
p. 86. 

lia Eisler, p. 81. According to the Jewish En- 
cyclopedia, s.v. Kenites, the Midianites into 
whose people Moses married were Kenites, and 
"their eponymous ancestor was Cain." They 
later became completely absorbed into the tribe 
of Judah. See R. North, in Jnl. Bibl. Lit., Vol. 
83 (1964) pp. 373-89. 

UT H. Seebass, Erzvater Israels, Zt. f. A.T. 
Wiss., Beiheft 98 (1966), p. 106. 

lls The chart is based on E. Naville, in Aeg. 
Ztschr., Vol. 15 (1877), pp. 29f. The parts of 
the body follow the later interpretation, A. Pian- 
koff, Shrines of Tutankhamon, p. 19, n. 39. 
Another system has East: Hawk-headed disk, 
Re-Harakhte Lord of Heaven; West: Scarab 
headed Khepri coming out of the ocean; North: 
Ram-headed Mendes the life (Ka) of the King; 
South: Human-headed Atum of .Heliopolis, J. 
De Wit, in Chron. d'Egypte, Vol. 32, pp. 31f. 
At the purification of the king, the East is the 
Hawk, the West is the Ibis, the North is the 
jackal-like Seth-animal, and the South is Horus 
the Hawk, E. Otto, in Orientalia, Vol. 7, pp. 
69ff. The doubling of the hawk, which occurs 
in the story of the Messenger-Hawk (above), 
has recently been noted by P. Munro, in Aeg. 
Ztschr., Vol. 95 (1968), p. 37. The fullest 
discussion of the system is the oldest, H. 
Brugsch, Die Geographic des altcn Aegyptens 
(Leipzig, 1857), pp. 30-34. 

1ln K. Sethe, Gesch. der Einbalsamicrung, pp. 
218f. See above, note 84. 



August 1969 



87 



88 



id' " ■ 



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